Georgian fonts

Article

January 24, 2022

Georgian (Georgian ქართული დამწერლობა, Kartuli damcerloba) are the three fonts currently used to write Georgian, some other Kartvel languages ​​(Mingrel, Svan and Lazz) and occasionally Ossetian and Abkhazians, but most of them are written in modified Cyrillic. . The Georgian language has used three typefaces in its history. However, these fonts written in the table, despite their differences, have the same sound names.

Fonts

Asomtavruli

The oldest Georgian script is asomtavruli (ასომთავრული; capital letters), also known as mrgvlovani (მრგვლოვანი; rounded). Its origin is associated with the arrival of Christianity in Georgia (into the then Kingdom of Iberia) in the early 4th century. The Georgian clergy have decided to create a special script that would make it easier to spread Christian teaching among the common people. At the beginning of the 5th century, the asomtavruli script already demonstrably existed, because wall inscriptions have been preserved from that time in the Georgian church in Bethlehem, built in 430, and in the Bolsini Sioni church near Tbilisi. However, its authors are unknown. The most significant mention of the origin of the Georgian script is found in the work of the 5th century Armenian chronicler and historian Koryun, who claimed that the author of the Georgian script was Armenian master Mesrop Maštoc, who by the way was the author of the Armenian script. However, some Georgian scholars believe that the script was created in the 3rd century by the legendary ancient Iberian king Parnavaz I. The script eventually ceased to be used in the 9th to 10th centuries. Today, it is used only exceptionally as an ornament or on the cover of books.

Nuschuri

The Nuschuri script (ნუსხური; lowercase letters, minuscule) first appeared in the 9th century and, like the Asomtavruli, served ecclesiastical purposes. The method of this notation was probably taken from the Northern Iranian notation of the Pahlavi, which itself was designed according to the ancient Aramaic script. In combination with the previous way of writing asomtavruli, which was used only as a capital letter at the beginning of sentences and names, it gave rise to the notation chucuri (ხუცური; ecclesiastical script), which is occasionally used today.

Mchedruli

The current mchedruli script (მხედრული, secular or military scripture) was created on the basis of previous types in the 11th century and was used exclusively for non-religious purposes. Since the 18th century, when chucuri ceased to be suitable in religion, mchedruli have been used in all areas of literature. The font contains a total of 40 letters, seven of which are no longer used today (marked in red in the table). The font is not case sensitive; Although some modern 19th-century Georgian writers liked to add asomtavruli to their works as capital letters, they only caused confusion when reading such texts, so such "capital letters" did not take hold in Georgian. Instead, Georgians prefer to write the first letter in a sentence a little larger than the others.

Transcription

Here is a table of today's Mechedrulian alphabet. It contains 33 letters that are convertible to both other Georgian spellings. The seven obsolete letters are not mentioned in it.

Links

Reference

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Georgian numerals Georgian Armenian font

External links

Pictures, sounds or videos on Georgian fonts on Wikimedia Commons www.onmiglot.com - basic phrases, how to spell + their sound recording (pronunciation)

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