Hong Kong (Chinese in Czech transliteration Xiang-kang, pinyin Xiānggǎng, characters 香港, Cantonese Hèung-gáwng, literally Fragrant Port) is a city and region in the People's Republic of China, located on the coast of the South China Sea. Hong Kong is a major economic and trade center. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world. The official name of the region is Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (Chinese in the Czech transcript Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China) and belong to the special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China. According to the constitution, Hong Kong enjoys a high degree of autonomy, with only the central government in Beijing being responsible for international politics and the armed forces.
Hong Kong has been inhabited since the Neolithic. The first European to visit the place was the Portuguese navigator Jorge Álvares in 1513. The Portuguese then set up a trading post in neighboring Macau.
British Hong Kong
In 1699, the British East India Company began trading in China. In Europe at that time there was a great demand for Chinese goods, on the contrary in China for European goods only very small, the Chinese demanded Europeans for their goods (silk, porcelain, tea) payments in silver. The British first began importing into China and later smuggling large opium, which they produced in their colonies in India. Opium drug addicts in China have grown rapidly. In 1839, when there were an estimated 2 million, Commissioner Lin took strong action on behalf of the Chinese emperor, arresting 1,600 Chinese traffickers and seizing and destroying more than 1,000 tons of opium. These measures gave rise to the First Opium War - the British sent a navy to China, which occupied several coastal cities by 1842 and forced the Chinese side to sign the Nanking Treaty on August 29, 1842, according to which the Chinese had to cede uncontrolled 5 to the United Kingdom. ports to foreign trading companies, allow opium trade, pay to the British destroyed opium ($ 6 million) and war expenses ($ 12 million) and forgive British traders debts of $ 3 million.
The Kowloon Peninsula was ceded to Britain in 1860 under the Beijing Treaty after the Second Opium War. Adjacent areas called "New Territories" (including New Kowloon and Lantau Island) were leased to Britain for 99 years, from July 1, 1898 to June 30, 1997.
Transition to Chinese Administration
In the 1980s, it was clear that the "New Territories" lease would soon expire. It was necessary for Britain to negotiate the return of Hong Kong to China. Under a treaty known as the "Sino-British Joint Declaration", signed by China and the United Kingdom on December 19, 1984, the entire territory of Hong Kong under British colonial rule became "Hong Kong, a special administrative zone of the PRC" on July 1, 1997. In this joint statement, the PRC undertook that according to the "one country, two systems" principle proposed by Chinese politician Teng Xiaoping, China's socialist economic system would not be practiced in Hong Kong and that the current capitalist system and lifestyle would remain unchanged for 50 years. , until 2047. The treaty entered into force after midnight on July 1, 1997, when the last British governor Chris Patten sailed on the Royal Yacht Britannia.
Uncertainty during the negotiations and strong pressure from the PRC caused a large outflow of investment capital (up to one million USD per day), the fall of the Hong Kong dollar, but above all