October 25, 2021

India, the full name of the Republic of India (Hindi भारत गणराज्य, Bharat Ganarajya), is the seventh largest and with more than a billion inhabitants the second most populous country in the world, located on the Indian subcontinent in South Asia. From a political point of view, it is a federal state (federation) with a socialist, democratic, parliamentary establishment (sometimes referred to as the "largest democracy in the world"). He is a member of the Commonwealth, has nuclear weapons and has his own space program. Its economy is the fastest growing in the world after China. According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), India is already the world's third largest economy (in terms of gross domestic product in purchasing power parity). By 2030, it should become the third largest economy in terms of nominal GDP. It is considered a regional power and one of the potential superpowers. In the east, India borders Bangladesh (4053 km) and Burma (1463 km). In the north and northeast it borders with China (3380 km), Bhutan (605 km) and Nepal (1690 km). It borders Pakistan in the northwest (2912 km). To the southeast behind Palk Strait lies 65 km southeast of the Indian shores of the island state of Sri Lanka. From the southwest, south and southeast, the Indian shores are washed by the Indian Ocean. The capital of India is called New Delhi. India is the cradle of several world religions - Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism originated here. Hinduism is still prevalent, with almost 80 percent of the population professing it. India has also been heavily Islamized in the past, but the role of Islam has declined since Indian Muslims broke away and established their own state, Pakistan, with which India still has border and other disputes. It happened in the same year that India emerged from British colonial influence, in 1947. In 1950, the current Republic of India was proclaimed. The most important state units of the past were the Mauritian Empire, the Gupt Empire and the Mughal Empire. Ethnically and linguistically, India is extremely diverse. The official languages ​​at the federal level are Hindi and English. Each state of the federation further determines its official language, thanks to which there are a total of 22 official languages ​​in India. By far the most people as their first language are Hindi (528 million), followed by Bengali, Marathi, Telugu and Tamil. India has a significant scientific tradition, especially mathematical. Its culture is also ancient (Vedas, Mahabharata, Ramayana), and the influence of Indian popular culture on the global (Bollywood) is growing.


The name India is derived from the Old Opera version of the word Sindhu, the historical local name for the river Indus. The Constitution of India also recognizes the term Bharat (hin .: भारत / bʰɑːrət̪ /) as the official name of the same status. This name is derived from the Sanskrit name of King Bharata, whose story is mentioned in the epic poem Mahabharata. A well-known saying is Bharat Mata, "Mother of India". The third name, Hindustan (hin .: हिन्दुस्तान / hin̪d̪ust̪ɑːn /) (per. Hindu country) has been used since the 12th century, although its current use is limited due to disputes about how accurately and correctly this word represents a country with many different religions.


The oldest signs of human culture in India are 30,000 years old. The Bhimbetka archeological site in the central state of Madhya Pradesh is significant. There is a group of rock shelters decorated with a number of murals, which are among the oldest in the world. Evidence of animal domestication and agricultural culture dates back to around 6500 BC. The oldest urban culture on the Indian subcontinent was the so-called Harapp culture

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