Calabria

Article

December 3, 2021

Calabria (Italian Calabria) is a region in southern Italy. It is bordered on the north by the region of Basilicata, on the west by the Tyrrhenian Sea and on the east by the Ionian Sea. Behind the Strait of Messina in the west lies Sicily. The region has an area of ​​15,079 km2 and has a population of almost 2 million. It is divided into 5 provinces. The capital of the area has been Catanzaro since 1970, but the former capital of Reggio di Calabria still has a local council. Calabria, resp. The Calabrian Peninsula is one of the poorest regions in Europe. There is a lack of industry and more monuments. But it has a long coastline and there are excellent conditions for diving lovers. Historic picturesque towns and excellent cuisine are beginning to attract tourists.

History

Prehistory

The first traces of human presence in Calabria date back to the Paleolithic, as evidenced by findings in the Praia and Mare caves and the Bos primigenius graffiti of the Grotta del Romito in Papasidero, where the figure of Bovid carved into the rock 12,000 years ago was found. Important archaeological finds are stored in Reggio Calabria at the National Museum of Magna Grecia.

Greek period

Between the 8th and 9th centuries BC, important cities belonging to Magna Graecia flourished here, such as Rhegion, Croton, Locri Epizephyrii, Metauros and Sybaris, and several sub-colonies founded by the colonies themselves, such as Kaulon, Hipponion, Medma Terina and Scolacium. .

Roman period

In the 3rd century BC, this area was conquered by the Romans.

Middle Ages

With the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Calabria was ravaged by war between the Ostrogoths and the Byzantines. Subsequently, as a result of the Langobard invasion, the Byzantines lost most of Italy, including northern Calabria.

Geography

Calabria is mostly mountainous. Mountains and mountain ranges make up 42% of the area, the highlands and hilly landscape 49%, lowlands and plains only 9%. The individual mountains belong to the Southern Apennines, a subgroup of the Calabrian Apennines. In the northern part of the region, the Pollino Mountains (Massiccio del Pollino) with the highest mountains of Calabria, Serra Dolcedorme (2,267 m) and Monte Pollino (2,248 m), form the border with Basilicata. To the northwest, along the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea, lies the narrow mountain range of the Catena Costiera, with the highest point at 1,541 meters. In the central part of the region, above the Catanzaria neck, lies the Sila plateau with a total area of ​​almost 2,000 km2, the highest point is Monte Botte Donato (1,928 m). Below the neck in the south of the region, in the central part of the territory, lies the Serre Calabresi mountain range, the highest point of 1,423 m. Most plains and lowlands lie on the shores of both seas. Due to its elongated shape, Calabria has a long coastline, the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west and the Ionian Sea to the east. The largest Calabrian rivers are the Crati (91 km), the Neto (80 km), the Tacina (58 km) and the Amato (56 km). There are also several lakes in the Sila plateau area, such as Lago Ampollino (5.6 km2).

Agriculture

In the primary sector, agriculture, is developed mainly the cultivation of olive trees (the region ranks second in Italy in terms of oil production), vines and citrus (one of them is bergamot, which is the basis of many perfumes). The main agricultural market is located in Catanzaro. Developed fisheries are also important.

Politics

The region is headed by a governor (Presidente), who is elected by direct universal suffrage for a five-year term. The governor is also the head of the regional government (Giunta), which currently consists of seven ministers (Assessori). He is now Governor Roberto Occhiuto for Forza Italia. The Legislature is the Consiglio Regionale, which has 31 members.

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