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July 5, 2022

Canada (English and French Canada, English pronunciation [ˈkʰænədə], French pronunciation [canada]) is the second largest country in the world (9.98 million square kilometers), located in the northern part of North America. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean (north), the Atlantic (east), the USA (south and northwest), and the Pacific Ocean (west). Canada was created in a land inhabited by Indians and Inuit as a union of British overseas territories and colonies, some of which were previously part of the French colonial empire. It gained independence from Great Britain peacefully with the British North America Act of 1867 and the Canada Act of 1982. Canada is a federation of ten provinces and three federal territories. It is also a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. The head of state is the British monarch, it is the last link with the former center of colonization. Canada defines itself as a bilingual country (the official languages ​​are English and French), in addition, for example, in the territory of Nunavut, the official language is the indigenous Inuit. It is a technically advanced country with extensive natural and mineral resources. Canada's economy is the tenth largest in the world, in the ranking of the human development index, Canada is thirteenth in the world. It is a member of the G8 and a free trade area with the United States and Mexico. The country has close political and economic relations with the US, with which it shares a long unguarded military border. It is the longest border between two countries in the world. The only other country that can meaningfully talk about a border with Canada is Denmark, from whose dependent territory - Greenland - Canada's Arctic islands are separated only by narrow straits and a short land border on the uninhabited Hans Island. Despite its vast area, Canada has a relatively small population of about 38 million people, and therefore a low population density. The capital of Canada is Ottawa, the most populous cities are Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. Canada is a founding member of NATO.


The name Canada comes from the language of the first nations – more specifically, the Huron tribe – and sounds kanata and can be translated into Czech as "village", "grouping of villages" or "settlement". In 1535, the Indians used this word to refer to the settlement of Stadacona in a conversation with Jacques Cartier. He then began to use them to mark the area around his settlement - today it is part of the city of Québec. From 1547, this designation began to appear on maps as a designation of a large surrounding area. Thus, the original designation, New France, ceased to be used and Canada was the name of the territory to the north of the USA and to the east of Alaska. The French colony of Canada, New France was established along the St. Lawrence River and north of the Great Lakes. Later, the territory was acquired by Great Britain, which later established two colonies on it: Upper Canada and Lower Canada, collectively referred to as The Canadas. These disappeared in 1841, when they were united in the United Province of Canada (United Province of Canada). In 1867, Canada became a confederation and a British dominion, officially known as the Dominion of Canada or the Canadian Confederation. With the increasing degree of independence from Great Britain, the name Dominion of was gradually dropped more and more often. In 1982, the Canada Act was adopted, which states Canada as the only official name of the country. In the same year, the national holiday Dominion Day was also renamed Canada Day.


Indian settlement

50,000-17,000 years ago, during the fourth ice age, or so-called Wisconsin, the lowered sea level allowed people to advance through today's Bering Strait (through the so-called Beringia) from Siberia to the American continent. However, the territory of Canada was blocked by a glacier