Charles I the Great (April 2, 747 or 748 - January 28, 814 Aachen) was King of France and the first medieval Roman emperor (800-814). He became King of the Franks in 768, King of the Langobards in 774 and Roman Emperor in 800. During the early Middle Ages he united most of Western and Central Europe. He decided that all his subjects must become Christians, a process that was accompanied by violence (such as the Verden massacre). He was the first recognized emperor to rule Western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire about three centuries earlier. The Frankish state, extended by another territory, was called the Carolinian Empire. The cultural heyday of his reign is called the Carolingian Renaissance. As his empire united today's German and French territories, Charlemagne is sometimes called the "Father of Europe" today. He was canonized by defiant Pope Paschal III. The Eastern Orthodox Church viewed him less favorably, because of his support for the filioque, and also because the pope preferred him to be appointed emperor over the Byzantine ruler Irena Athena, thus favoring the entire West. These disputes eventually led to the Great Schism, the division of the Western and Eastern Churches in 1054.
Rise of Charlemagne
Karel was probably born in 747 (742, 748 or 751 are also mentioned). He was not German, but Frank, a Romanized German. Latin was used in Charles' Frankish Empire, and various dialects (Franco, Saxon, Bavarian, Frisian, Thuringian, Alaman, Langobard) sounded in addition to Gallic, Romanesque and Slavic dialects. He was the son of a butler and later Frankish king Pippin III. Short and Bertrada, daughters of Count Heribert of Laon. Pipin's father was Charles Martel, a high-ranking official who, after more than 200 years, united all the Franks (conquered the Langobard empire), Christianized the Germanic tribes in the northeast of the empire (Saxon wars), defeated independent dukes resisting the kingdom (mainly Bavaria), and incorporated their territory to the Frankish Empire. After Pippin's death in 768, Charlemagne took over the government together with his brother Charlemagne. However, he died in 771. After his brother's death, he became the sole ruler of the Frankish Empire. He was a member of the Karlovci dynasty, which replaced the 752 Merovingians. Charlemagne became famous not only as a warrior and conqueror, but also as an important ruler and legislator. He founded a court school and an imperial palace in Aachen. He invited important scholars to his court (eg Alkuin of York, Paul of the Deacon, Peter of Pisa, Angilbert and Einhard). Although he was illiterate himself, he took care of the development of arts and crafts, eased cruel laws, ordered monasteries to procure books and engage in school education. He had 5 legitimate women and 4 companions (the church called it restraint).
The biography of Charlemagne Vita Karoli Magni was written by the scholar and poet Einhard after his death.
Life in Data
768 Charles and his brother Charles I of France take over the government of the Frankish Empire
771 After his brother's death, Charles became the sole ruler of the Frankish Empire
772-804 war to conquer and Christianize the Saxons
774 Conquest of Pavia, overthrow of the King of Lombard Desiderius - Charlemagne the King of Lombard
778 failed expedition to the Iberian Peninsula against the Arabs (episode with Roland during the defeat in the battle of Roncevaux Pass)
781 Establishment of the Kingdom of Italy as a sub-kingdom of the Frankish Empire
788 overthrow and condemnation of the Duke of Bavaria Tassil III.
791–803 refutation of the Avar empire
793 Frisian uprising against conscription into the Frankish army
795 victory over the Avars, conquest of the "cup", establishment of the Pannonian Mark
December 25 800 coronation and anointing of the emperor by Pope Leo III. in Rome
In 801 he expanded the Frankish territory to the river Ebro and founded the Spanish