January 24, 2022

Kazakhstan (Kazakh [азақстан [qɑzɑqˈstɑn]), the full name of the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a state located in Central Asia and a small part of its territory west of the Ural River also extends into Europe. It borders Russia to the northwest and north, China to the east, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan to the south, and the Caspian Sea to the southwest. With an area of ​​2.7 million km2, it is the ninth largest state and the largest landlocked state. It has a population of 19 million, most of the area is very sparsely populated, with an average density of 7 inhabitants / km2. The capital is Nur-Sultan, formerly known as Astana, until 1997 it was Almaty. The territory of Kazakhstan was inhabited in ancient times by Turkish nomads. In the 13th century, the territory was ruled by the Mongols under Genghis Khan. The Russians gradually began to rule the Kazakh steppe from the 18th century. By the middle of the 19th century, they had incorporated the entire territory of present-day Kazakhstan into the Russian Empire. After 1923 it became part of the Soviet Union, from 1936 as the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic. During the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Kazakhstan declared independence, albeit the last of the Soviet republics. President Nursultan Nazarbayev headed the country until March 2019. His regime was characterized as authoritarian. However, the country is experiencing massive economic development. Kazakhstan has gradually become the economically dominant country in Central Asia, producing 60% of the region's GDP, mainly due to extensive oil and gas extraction. There are 131 ethnic groups in the country, most of whom are Kazakhs (63% of the population). The largest minorities are Russians, Uzbeks, Ukrainians, Germans, Tatars and Uighurs. Islam is the religion of about 70% of the population, Christianity is practiced by 26%. The official language is Kazakh, but Russian has the same status and can be used in all offices. In 2017, Kazakhstan began the transition from Cyrillic to Latin, the process is due to be completed in 2025. Kazakhstan is a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the Eurasian Economic Union, the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the Islamic Cooperation Organization and the International Organization of Turkish Culture. Geopolitically, Kazakhstan has ties primarily to Russia and Turkey.


Prehistory and Middle Ages

The first settlement has been confirmed since the Stone Age. The area had excellent conditions for the development of pastoralism. Historians believe that the first domestication of the horse took place on the Kazakh steppe. In the Middle Ages, the so-called Silk Road led across the country. Several important trade centers were established here (Taraz, Turkestan). In the 11th century, the Turkish Kumans entered the territory, who later formed the Kuman-Kypčak Confederation with another Turkish nomadic Kypčak tribe. In the 13th century, Genghis Khan invaded Kazakhstan with his hordes. The Kumans were defeated and the area became part of the Mongol Empire. It was reunited in the 16th century, when an extremely large Kazakh Khanate was established. At that time, the Kazakh national identity and Kazakh were also established. In the 17th century, however, the clan rivalry led to the division of the khanate into three žuzy (Large, Medium and Small). Eventually, the Khanate also suffered from the Four Ojrat invasions, a federation of four Mongol tribes, the most aggressive of which were the Jungars, who occupied the central and eastern regions of the country. The Jungars were definitively defeated by the Kazakh Khan Ablay in 1729 at the Battle of Anrakaj, and Ablai gained the status of national hero (batyr). The country was reunited, but intensified by the fighting with the Jungars. This was first used by the Kalmyks of Volga and conquered present-day southeastern Kazakhstan, including the capital Almaty. Also Buchars

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