July 1, 2022

Krakow (Polish Kraków pronunciation, German Krakau, Ukrainian Краків) is the capital of the Lesser Poland Voivodeship in southern Poland, in the historic country of Lesser Poland. It lies on the Vistula River, in the narrowest point of the so-called Krakow Gate, which connects the Sandoměřská basin with the Auschwitz basin. In 2021, Krakow had 782,100 inhabitants (the second largest Polish city by population). The area of ​​the city is 327 km² (the second largest city by area). According to the city council, just over a million people live in Krakow. 250,000 unregistered inhabitants + 50,000 Ukrainians. 150,000 students study here. Krakow is a historic residence of Polish kings with Wawel Castle and Cathedral, the seat of an ancient university and archbishopric. The old town with many historical monuments and parks is a popular tourist destination and is inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.


According to legend, the name of the town comes from the name of Prince Krakow, who is considered a Slav in Poland. Most likely, however, the name comes from the Celts who inhabited the area, which is known from archaeological finds and Roman sources. Then the name would be Carragh or something like that. However, there may be a connection with the name of the legendary Iberian (Keltiber) king Crocco. The character of Prince Kroka also appears in Czech legends. The name of the city in Latin is Cracovia, Lithuanian Krokuva, Hungarian Krakkó, Russian and Tatar Краков, English Cracow and in Yiddish קראקע, Krůke.


The oldest part of the city is located on the fortified Wawel Hill. It was one of the most important fortifications in the Vistula tribal principality. She controlled it during the reign of the Great Moravian prince Svatopluk. The first mention of Krakow (as an important commercial fort) comes from 966, when the city was ruled by the Czech prince Boleslav I., remained under the Přemyslid rule during the reign of Boleslav II, but probably at its end, in 999, Krakow was conquered by Boleslav the Brave, the grandson of the Czech prince Boleslav I., and annexed to his Piast Polish state. Since 1000, there has been a diocese in Krakow. In 1038, during the reign of Casimir I the Restorer, Krakow became the Polish capital. At the time of the disintegration of the state into individual fates (Polish rozbicie dzielnicowe) was the seat of the prince (książę senior) - the principle. During the Mongol invasion in 1241, the city was almost completely destroyed. The restoration of Krakow and Prince Boleslav V. Nesmělý, his mother Grzymisław and wife bl. On June 5, 1257, Kunhuta gave the city locator rights under Magdeburg law. The task of locating was entrusted to three fojtas: Gedek, Jakub of Nisa and Dytmar Wolk. The founding document spoke about: exemption of townspeople from taxes for a period of 6 years exemption of townspeople from customs duties for 10 years gave the right to fish in the Vistula on the section from Zwierzyńca to Mogiły gave the Fojts the right to 1/6 of the income from shops and markets gave the fojts the right to eternal exemption from customs duties gave the fojts the right to own slaughterhouses and mills. Between Krakow and Wawel, there was still the settlement of Okół, which was an independent fortress until the revolt of Fojt Albert, when King Vladislav Lokýtek demolished its walls and incorporated it to Krakow. Therefore, the old town also has an elongated north-south shape and stretches all the way to the Castle. In 1320, the coronation of Vladislav Lokietek as King of Poland took place in the Wawel Cathedral, ending the period of Poland's disintegration into individual parts. Until 1734, Krakow was the place of coronation of Polish kings. In the 14th century, two other cities were established on the outskirts of Kraków: Kazimierz (1335) in the south and Kleparz (1366) in the north. Krakow is