Kristián X. (September 26, 1870, Charlottenlund Castle near Copenhagen - April 20, 1947 Copenhagen) was a Danish king in 1912–1947 and an Icelandic king between 1918–1944.
He was born Christian Carl Frederik Albert Alexander Vilhelm on September 26, 1870 at Charlottenlund Castle near Copenhagen as the eldest son of King Frederick VIII. and Luisa of Sweden (his younger brother was the later Norwegian King Haakon VII). He ascended the throne in 1912 after the death of his father.
Two years after his accession to the throne, the First World War began. The king and his government feared a German invasion, so they decided to keep the country out of the war. They have only partially succeeded, as Germany has ordered Denmark to mine the straits and prevent any English intervention in the Baltic Sea. On that occasion, more than three hundred vessels of the Danish merchant fleet sank.
During the war on June 5, 1915, a new constitution was adopted, which introduced proportional representation and extended the right to vote to women.
After the German defeat, there was a plebiscite about the future fate of Schleswig. The people of North Schleswig voted in favor of joining Denmark, while 80% of the people of South Schleswig voted in favor of joining the new German Republic. On July 10, 1920, Kristián X. triumphantly crossed the border on a white horse and entered the reconquered territory. This image remained engraved in the memory of the Danes for a long time. When the Socialists came to power six years later, they immediately abolished the first point of their program, which was the abolition of the monarchy.
During the German occupation
In 1939, Denmark agreed without hesitation to sign a non-aggression pact with the Empire, but this did not prevent Hitler from preparing Operation Weserübung to seize Danish and Norwegian naval bases. On April 9, 1940, at 5 a.m., the operation began, and at dawn the king was informed of the ultimatum given to his government: to immediately receive imperial protection or to face an attack by German troops. Aware of the inequality of power, the king refused to order mobilization. The Royal Guard fired a few rifle shots, but as German bombers began flying over Copenhagen, the king and his ministers decided to accept the occupation "with reservations" on the condition that Danish affairs would remain in Danish hands. When the Danish army surrendered, 13 people were counted - against 20 dead Germans.
Marriages and descendants
On April 26, 1898, Prince Kristián married Princess Alexandrina von Mecklenburg-Schwerin, daughter of Grand Duke Friedrich Francis von Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Two sons arose from the marriage:
Frederik (March 11, 1899 - January 14, 1972), later King of Denmark, ∞ Ingrid of Sweden
Knut Kristián (July 27, 1900 - June 14, 1976), in 1963 hereditary Prince of Denmark, olina Karolina Matylda of DenmarkChristian's official title was:
Christian X., by the grace of God, King of Denmark, Wend and Goths, Duke of Schleswig, Holstein, Stormarn, Dithmarschen, Lauenburg and Oldenburg. In 1918, after the declaration of independence of Iceland, the title was changed:
Christian X, by the grace of God, King of Denmark, Iceland, Wend and Goths, Duke of Schleswig, Holstein, Stormarn, Dithmarschen, Lauenburg and Oldenburg.
After the dissolution of the Danish-Icelandic Personnel Union in 1944, the title was changed again:
Christian X, by the grace of God, King of Denmark, Wend and Goths, Duke of Schleswig, Holstein, Stormarn, Dithmarschen, Lauenburg and Oldenburg. royal family.
Titles and honors
History of Denmark
List of Danish heads of state
Pictures, sounds or videos on the topic