Louis II


January 24, 2022

Louis II The German (around 805 - August 28, 876) was the first East Frankish king of the Charles family to rule in the years 843-876.

Struggles for the throne and the Treaty of Verdun

Louis was the third son of the Roman emperor Louis I the Pious, who, in his succession order called the Ordinatio imperii in 817, defined the government of Bavaria as a fate. In 829, however, the emperor violated his own provisions in favor of his youngest son Karel called Holý, who was born only in 823. In the disputes, Louis first stood with his brother Pippin on his father's side against his eldest brother Lothar. However, when Pipin died in 838, he also began to fight the emperor, and after his death in 840, he and Karl Holý opposed Lothar I's claims to sovereign rule over the entire Frankish kingdom. In 842, Louis and Charles concluded the so-called Strasbourg Oaths, and a year later, in Verdun, they achieved the division of the empire into three parts, in which the brothers were to rule as three equal rulers. Lothar retained the imperial title, but without sovereignty over the brothers.

The first king of the East Frankish Empire

After 843, Louis II. The German became completely independent in the eastern part of the empire and became the founder of the East Frankish empire (in the Latin sources Francia orientalis). In the west, it expanded its territory to include eastern Lotharing, which, after the death of its ruler, Lothar's son Lothar II. († 869) parted with his brother Karel Holý in 870 by the Treaty of Meersen (by the Treaty of Ribemont 880, Lotharingia fell to the East Frankish Empire). He undertook numerous expansions in the east. He fought with the Elbe Slavs and Serbs, Czechs and Bulgarians. His troops invaded the territory of the Moravian Empire. In 846, he helped the Moravian prince Rostislav to rule the government, who then tried to free himself from Frankish influence. Despite numerous other expeditions, Ludvík failed to subdue Moravia permanently. In 876 he made peace with Prince Svatopluk in Forchheim and recognized the independence of his state from the East Frankish Empire.


In the year 827, Louis II. he married Hemma, the sister of his father's second wife, Judita Bavarian. Hemma gave birth to seven children, four daughters and three sons. Hildegard (828 - 856), nun Karloman (around 830 - September 22, 880), King of East Franconia (876–880) Irmgard of Chiemsee († 866), nun Gisela, nun Louis III (835 - January 20, 882), King of East Franconia (876–882) ∞ 874 Liutgard of Saxony Berta († 877), nun Charles III Tlusty (June 13, 839 - January 13, 888), King of East Franconia (876-887) ∞ 862 Richardis AlsaceThe girls spent their lives in the monastery as nuns and sons ruled together the East Frankish Empire. Charles, who was not only King of East France, but also King of Italy from 879, crowned Roman Emperor as Charles III from 881, achieved the greatest success in power. and finally after the death of King Charles II. in 884 King of West France. Thus he succeeded, albeit only formally and for a very short time, in unifying the Frankish Empire for the last time. The dynasty of the Eastern Charles family died out in 911 by Louis IV. called Child (descendant of Arnulf of Carinthia, Karloman's illegitimate son).


BIGOTT, Boris. Ludwig der Deutsche and the Reichskirche in the Ostfränkischen Reich (826–876). Husum: Matthiesen, 2002. ISBN 3-7868-1470-8. (German) HARTMANN, Wilfried. Ludwig der Deutsche. Darmstadt: Primus Verlag, 2002. ISBN 3-89678-452-8. (German) GOLDBERG, Eric Joseph. Struggle for Empire: Kingship and Conflict Under Louis the German, 817-876. Ithaca: Cornell University Press 388 pp. ISBN 9780801438905. (English) SCHNITH, Karl Rudolf, et al. Medieval men in life pictures: from the Carolingen to the Staufern. Graz; Vienna; Cologne: Verlag Styria, 1990. 388 pp. ISBN 3-222-11973-2. (German)

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