Isle of Man

Article

August 13, 2022

The Isle of Man (also Mann, in Manx Mannin) lies in the Irish Sea between England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales. It has dimensions of about 48×16 km and its area is 572 km2. Man is a self-governing British Crown Dependency Isle of Man (English Isle of Man, Manx Ellan Vannin). This territory is not an integral part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Its administrative center is the capital Douglas.

History

Vikings (English Norsemen) settled the Isle of Man at the end of the 8th century. In 1079, the Viking-Galic conqueror Godred Crovan, who was already the ruler of the Kingdom of Dublin (Kingdom of Dublin), created the so-called Kingdom of Mann and the Isles (Kingdom of Mann and the Isles). Its capital was located on St. Patrick's Island, and the king resided at Peel Castle. In addition to the Isle of Man, other islands to the southwest of Scotland belonged to this small kingdom. It existed in this form until 1164, when it was divided into two kingdoms. Godred Crovan, known on the island as King of Orry or Gorry, died in 1095 of the plague. He left behind three sons whose names were Lagmann, Olaf I and Harald. Lagmann stood up to Harald and had him blinded. The descendants of Lagmann and Olaf I then ruled the kingdom until a certain Somerled seized it. The family of this man ruled until 1265, when the Isle of Man was seized by the Scottish king Alexander III. As late as 1275, Godred VI, the son of the last king of the small island kingdom, was trying to return to its throne. The Kingdom of Mann and the Isles was formally part of the Kingdom of Norway for centuries of Viking rule. In 1266, the Norwegian king Magnus VI resigned. under the Treaty of Perth all these islands fell to Scotland. In 1284, Alexander III established head of the Macdonald family (clan) Angus Macdonald (also called Aonghas Mór) lord of the Isle of Man and the Outer Hebrides. The leaders of the Macdonald clan acted as almost independent rulers for the next two centuries and very often opposed the Scottish king. In the 14th century, disputes arose between England and Scotland over the Isle of Man. After a period of alternating domination by one country or another, the island came under English control definitively in 1399 (in the form of the so-called feudal lordship of the English crown). As a result of constitutional changes and the creation of Great Britain, the Isle of Man has been a British dependent territory since 1765. During both world wars, alien internment camps were established on the Isle of Man. Most of the territory of the Isle of Man - an area of ​​457,000 ha - was included in the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in 2016.

Geography

The Isle of Man is part of the British Isles, which lies northwest of the European mainland. The island lies in the Irish Sea, approximately halfway between England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. The island is about 48 km long and 13–24 km wide. The hills to the north and south are bisected by a valley in the middle. The far north is exceptionally flat, formed by glacial deposits. The highest mountain, Snaefell, is 621 meters high. According to legend, six kingdoms can be seen from its peak: the former Kingdom of Man, the Kingdom of Scotland, England, Ireland, Wales and the Kingdom of Heaven. Some versions add a seventh kingdom - the kingdom of the sea (or the kingdom of Neptune).

Population

The Isle of Man has a population of about 80,000 (80,058 according to the 2006 census), of which approximately 26,000 (26,218 according to the 2006 census) live in the capital, Douglas). The population density is 140 inhabitants per square kilometer. The last native Manx speaker died in 1974, but recently the language is being taught again.

Economics

Livestock breeding (sheep, cattle, poultry), fishing, tourism (325 thousand visitors in 1990).

Government

The Isle of Man is alone