Maximilian II

Article

May 28, 2022

Maximilian II (July 31, 1527 Vienna - October 12, 1576 Regensburg) was the Roman emperor, king of Bohemia (crowned 1562), Hungarian (crowned 1563), Margrave of Moravia and Archduke of Austria. He took over the government after the death of his father Ferdinand I. on July 27, 1564. In 1575 he orally confirmed the Czech Confession.

Catholicism and Protestantism

Youth Maximilian II. spent in Innsbruck, Austria, where he also studied. He was a gifted student and spoke Spanish, French, Latin, Hungarian and Italian fluently. From a young age, he showed a passion for humanistic ideas and Renaissance art. Under the influence of evangelical teachers, he began to sympathize with non-Catholics. He also established friendships with members of the German Protestant nobility. At a time when the Habsburgs were staunch supporters of the Catholic faith, it was Maximilian who had the hopes of Protestants. Precisely because Maximilian had shown sympathy for his non-Catholic faith since his youth, his father Ferdinand, together with his brother, Emperor Charles V, decided to marry Charles' daughter, the Catholic Spanish Infanta Maria. From his marriage to Maria of Spain, 16 descendants were born. Maximilian II he soon realized that he would not gain much by leaning towards the Protestants, so in February 1562 in Prague he took a solemn oath of allegiance to the Catholic Church in front of his relatives. He was the titular Czech king from 1549, and on May 14, 1562, he was crowned him. On November 24, 1562, he was elected King of Rome and Germany. On September 8, 1563, he was crowned King of Hungary in Prešpurk (today's Bratislava). Maximilian II he had a great interest in raising wild animals, as we learn from a letter to the Duke of Parma, asking him to send several pairs of wild horses (probably tarpans) and other animals to his menagerie. Emperor Maximilian II. he then had a large one-storey building built in 1560, in which there were a number of pens with paddocks on the ground floor. This building was built on the northern side of Prague Castle behind the Deer Moat and was called the Lion's Court, later renamed the Bear's Court. In addition to various beasts, the emperor had birds and large reptiles brought. Maximilian's quest was primarily for stability in the Habsburg system, and so he sought to maintain a balance between his non-Catholic subjects and the pressures of Madrid and the Pope of Rome. In 1568 he allowed the nobility in Lower Austria a non-Catholic faith.

Maximilian and Hungary

From 1566 to 1568, Maximilian waged war on the Ottoman Empire. In August 1566, Sultan Suleiman I besieged Szigetvár Fortress, which prevented Ottoman troops from advancing on Vienna. Its commander Mikuláš Zrinský and most of his men perished during the defense of the castle, but the campaign was eventually ended despite the occupation of Szigetvár, because in September 1566 the sultan died. To defend Hungary, Maximilian organized a large expedition (more than 100 thousand soldiers) and went with them to Hungary. However, the expedition failed. Under the peace of 1568, Maximilian was forced to pay the Turks an annual rent of 30,000 ducats. The war with the Turks revealed economic shortcomings, especially in the eastern part of the empire. Hungary was in bad condition and heavily indebted for many years of Ottoman devastation and neglected farming. In an effort to revive the economy, Maximilian issued on May 15, 1565 the CONSTITUTIO MAXIMILIANA SEU NORMA SILVAS CAMERALES PROPAGANDI ET COLENDI (Maximilian's Order or Forest Regulation). The second important document, the aim of which was to strengthen the economy, was in 1571 a mining regulation for Central Slovak towns. Maximilian II. as the Czech king The Czech new tractists, who made up the majority of the population, the Lutherans and the Unity of Brethren, urged Maximilian to repeal the compact because it was obsolete. With its concept, it suited only the ancient Kalisniks, whom