Metro in Kiev
The Kiev subway is a system of three subway lines under the capital of Ukraine, Kiev. It is the oldest system of its kind in the country and the third in the former USSR. The Kiev metro has been in operation since 1960 and transports about 1.4 million people a day.
Nature of operation
The Kiev metro is an important element in Kiev's entire city transport. As in other cities of the former Eastern bloc, it consists of three lines arranged so that it forms a transition triangle in the city center. The sections below the central part of the city are deeply established so that in the event of a war they can be used as anti-nuclear shelters for the civilian population.
There are a total of two depots in the network, in which a total of over one hundred trains (around 600 cars) are located. They transport around 1.439 million people a day on a 67.4 km (of which 6 km on the surface) long line with 52 stations.
The first plans to create a rapid transit system under the city date back to 1916, when the American-Russian trading company planned to raise a large sum of funds and create a subway in Tsarist Russia. It continued its efforts even after the country's collapse, in a short period when Ukraine was independent. However, he took over the whole project with the establishment of Soviet power.
In Soviet times, the first subway projects began to appear before World War II, in collaboration with experts from Moscow. Two years after the transfer of the capital of Ukraine from Kharkov to Kiev, the presidency of the local Soviet prepared an analysis of the construction of the metro, which was to become part of the city's reconstruction into the modern USSR metropolis. Although there was almost nothing in the way of implementation at the end of the 1930s, the whole project had to be canceled due to the war.
After the war, the city was destroyed and had to be repaired and rebuilt. As part of this event, the construction of an underground railway has finally begun; it started in August 1949 and in 1960 the first section was ceremoniously opened (it was the first 5.2 km between Vokzalna and Dnipro stations).
These oldest stations are now part of a line connecting the east of the city with the west known as Svjatošinako-Brovarska. In 1965, the line crossed the Dnieper Bridge through a bridge towards new housing estates in the east, and was extended in 1968 and 1971. On the western side, the new sections to the Sviatoshyn and Bilchi districts were operated by the Kiev transport company in 1963, 1971 and 2003.
In the 1970s, construction began on a second, north-south line known as the Kurenivsko-Červonoarmijska. Although its first part had only three stations, others quickly opened. In the 1980s, she reached the Obolon housing estate, located north of the city center. In 1981 and 1984, there was also an extension to the southwest.
The existing two lines at the end of the 1980s were supplemented by a third, Syrecko-Pečerska. Construction work on its first section began in 1981, the first 3 stations were completed after eight years. This line also crossed the Dnieper, in 1992, two years later it arrived in the newest settlements Poznansky and Kharkivsky. Nevertheless, the economic crisis of the 1990s affected the construction of the metro here as well; some stations were opened after a delay of several years.
At the beginning of the 21st century, the vehicle fleet is also changing. Initially, there was an effort to replace obsolete sets of Soviet origin type E and 81-71 with modernized trains - also modified Škoda Transportation and ZREPS (metro car repair shops, specializing mainly in the Moscow metro), but in the end only one prototype set was purchased. The new trains are type 81-7021 / 7022 from the Kryukovsky plant (Kremenchug region), historically the first made in Ukraine. Work began on the first wagons in 2003.
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