International Space Station
October 25, 2021
The International Space Station (Междунаро́дная косми́ческая ста́нция, МКС), better known as ISS, is currently the only permanently inhabited space station. The first part of the station, the Zarja module, was launched into orbit on November 20, 1998. It has been permanently inhabited since November 2, 2000, when the first permanent crew entered the station. Currently, the crew, which changes every 6 months, consists of 7 members. The station is located in low Earth orbit at an altitude of about 400 km. At an average speed of about 7,700 m / s (27,720 km / h), it regularly orbits the Earth with a period of about 92 minutes. In many ways, the ISS represents a merger of previously planned independent stations, the Russian station Mir 2 and the American Freedom. In addition to the Russian and American modules planned for these stations, the European Columbus laboratory module and the Japanese Kibó laboratory module are connected to the station. The International Space Station is a joint project of five space agencies: NASA, Roskosmos, JAXA, CSA and ESA (involving 11 of its members; Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom) . The astronauts must speak English and Russian. The Brazilian Space Agency is participating under a special contract with NASA. Similarly, the Italian Space Agency has separate contracts for various activities which it does not carry out as part of the tasks of the European Space Agency for the ISS (of which Italy is also a full participant). The transport of the astronauts to the station and back is provided by transported Russian spacecraft Soyuz and Crew Dragon from the American private company SpaceX. The use of American private ships Starliner is also being prepared. The station is supplied by automatic cargo spacecraft - Russian Progressy, American Cargo Dragons and Cygnus and Japanese HTV. Cosmonauts and supplies used to carry American Space Shuttles to the station, while European automatic ships ATVs and American Dragons. The originally planned life of the ISS was until 2016, in the winter of 2013–2014, financial coverage was ensured by the US government until 2024.