November 28, 2021
Germany, full name Federal Republic of Germany (German Bundesrepublik Deutschland), abbreviated Germany (unofficial German abbreviation BRD), is a Central European state, divided into 16 federal states. In the west, Germany borders France, Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands. In the north, its neighbor is Denmark and its shores are washed by the North and Baltic Seas. It borders Poland in the east, Switzerland in the south and the Czech Republic and Austria in the southeast. The Czechia is a neighbor of two federal states in Germany, namely Bavaria and Saxony. The area of Germany is 357,023 km2, while the territory of the state is located in a temperate climate zone. According to official data, Germany had a population of 82.2 million as at 31 December 2015, making it the most populous country in the European Union. However, its population fell by almost 800,000 between 2003 and 2010, due to a long-term very low birth rate, so that until 2012 Germany was one of the few Western European countries with a declining population. This development is taking place despite the fact that Germany is also home to the third largest immigrant population in the world. The result of the 2011 census meant a reduction in the current official estimate of the population by about 1.1 million people. In terms of the absolute number of immigrants, Germany is the country most affected by the current European migration crisis, especially in 2015. According to well-known documents, the area with the Latin name Germania was inhabited by several Germanic tribes as early as 100 AD From the 10th century, the German territories formed the core of the Holy Roman Empire, which existed until 1806. In the 16th century The unification of a large part of the then Germany took place after the Prussian-French War in 1871. In 1914, Germany played a significant role in the outbreak of the First World War. In 1939, Germany started World War II, which lasted until 1945 and was the largest war in history. After the defeat in this war, Germany lost territory east of the Nisa and Odra rivers, including the exclave of East Prussia. In 1949, two states were established on the rest of Germany, the German Democratic Republic (GDR) and the Federal Republic of Germany (Germany). A special political unit was West Berlin, which, however, had strong ties to Germany throughout its existence. In 1990, the reunited Berlin and the five restored countries of the former GDR joined the Federal Republic of Germany. West Germany was a founding member of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952 and a founding state of the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1957. At present, Germany is a major member of both the European Union (EU) and the European Monetary Union (EMU). It is also part of the Schengen area. The German currency is the euro, which replaced the German mark in 2002. Germany is a federal and democratic parliamentary republic, made up of sixteen federal states (Bundesländer). The capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany is a member of the UN, NATO, the G8 (resp. G7) and a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol. Based on nominal GDP, the German economy is the fourth largest in the world and the largest in Europe. Until 2009, when China surpassed them, Germany was the world's largest exporter of goods. Germany is the world's second largest provider of development aid and its defense spending is the sixth largest in the world. The standard of living is high in Germany and the country has a developed social assistance system. Germany is one of the key players in European and global politics. Germany is considered a world leader in many scientific and technological fields.