January 24, 2022
Napoleon I. Bonaparte (August 15, 1769 Ajaccio - May 5, 1821 Saint Helena) was a French military leader and statesman, emperor in 1804-1814 and then a hundred days at the turn of spring and summer 1815. During the Great French Revolution he made a dizzying career: in For 24 years he was a general, shortly in his thirties the first man in the state, and at the height of his power he controlled most of Western Europe. His downfall was also rapid; he spent the end of his life in exile. Napoleon is a model of military ability and determination, but on the other hand, he showed indifference to people in whom he saw only the means of his goals. He was able to whip the nation with tremendous effort, but at the cost of enormous casualties. More than a million French citizens perished during the Napoleonic Wars. He was born in Corsica into the family of a not very wealthy member of the bureaucratic nobility. At the age of nine, he traveled to France, where he studied as a scholarship at military schools. After his father's death, at the age of 16, he took care of the family, completed his studies prematurely and joined the army with the rank of lieutenant. As an artillery officer, he was responsible for the conquest of the fortress of Toulon in 1793, for which he was promoted to the rank of brigadier general. In 1795 he successfully suppressed the royalist uprising in the streets of Paris and became a divisional general. The following year he was sent by the director to the war with Austria and given command of the French army in Italy. Here he seized the opportunity and, through a series of victories, forced Austria to ask for peace. In 1799, after a not-so-successful campaign in Egypt, Napoleon embarked on a political coup that was to limit the power of the two legislatures in favor of a much stronger executive. This brought him to the position of leader of the three ruling consuls. From 1800 he held the position of first consul for life, and four years later he forced the senate to elect him emperor of France. He retained the government during an almost continuous state of war until 1814, when VI troops were marched on Russia after the collapse. the coalition pushed up to the French capital and forced its own marshals to abdicate. He was later sent into exile on the island of Elba, from where he fled after less than a year, returned to France and reoccupied the imperial throne without a single shot. However, France fell into military-political isolation and the restored empire lasted 110 days. Napoleon's government ended in defeat at the Battle of Waterloo, after which he abdicated for the second time and fell into the hands of the Allies. They sentenced him to life in exile on the island of St. Helena, where he died after less than six years at the age of fifty-one. During his lifetime, Napoleon fought about sixty battles, more than Alexander the Great, Hannibal, Caesar, and Alexander Suvorov, and for almost another century, military theory and practice were judged by his rules and adapted to his conception of warfare. During the Napoleonic era, France changed from a feudal state to a socially and civically newly structured society and set the political trend in much of Europe. Among other things, he carried out a comprehensive reform of the country's internal administration and in 1804 issued a new Civil Code, which became a model for other European countries and French law continues to this day.