The Napoleonic Wars were a series of wars between 1803 and 1815, following the revolutionary wars that ended in 1802. Napoleonic France was eventually defeated, leading to the restoration of the Bourbons. The Napoleonic Wars ended with the defeat of Napoleon I at the Battle of Waterloo on June 18, 1815 and the Second Treaty of Paris.
In 1789, the Great French Revolution broke out and France became a constitutional monarchy. The revolution in France disturbed the rulers of neighboring countries. On February 7, the Holy Roman Emperor and the Prussian King concluded a pact against France and launched the French Revolutionary War. After Louis XVI's attempt to escape, his detention in Varennes and his subsequent execution, the coalition expanded to include the Italian states, Great Britain and Spain.
France fought this coalition until 1797, when General Bonaparte forced the Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II. to make peace in Campo Formio after a successful Italian campaign, but the United Kingdom did not make peace with France. In 1798, Bonaparte launched an Egyptian campaign, which France's enemies used to form a second coalition of Russia, Austria and Great Britain.
The Allied army, led by Marshal Suvorov, began to defeat the French in Italy and Switzerland, but divisions began to emerge between Russia and Austria, which eventually led to Russia withdrawing its troops from European battlefields. Meanwhile, Bonaparte returned from Egypt, where he left his troops under General Kléber and defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Marengo in a second Italian campaign. However, despite a brief truce, the war continued until winter, until the Battle of Hohenlinden, where General Moreau defeated the Allied Austro-Bavarian army under Archduke John. Subsequent negotiations led to a separate peace with Austria in Lunéville. In 1802 she made peace with Britain, in Amiens.
Invasion of England (1803–1805)
In May 1803, war broke out again between France and Great Britain when French troops invaded Hanover, which belonged to the British Crown (the British King was the Elector of Hanover). Immediately afterwards, Britain confiscated 1,200 French merchant ships in ports. Then Napoleon Bonaparte planned an invasion of England for two years. During the preparations for the invasion, on December 2, 1804, he was crowned emperor of France, which provoked the formation of the Third Coalition. He used the Dutch and Spanish fleets, which he joined. Early in the year, Napoleon finally ordered Admiral Villeneuu to lure the British fleet to the Antilles. Here Villeneuve avoided the battle and decided to return to Europe. On his return, however, the British caught him. He suffered casualties in the ensuing battle and retreated to Cadiz. Villeneuve soon left the port of Cádiz, but on October 21, 1805, he was defeated by Admiral Nelson at the Battle of Trafalgar. The Battle of Trafalgar eventually prevented an invasion of England, despite the death of Admiral Horatio Nelson. After losing to the British, Napoleon declared: "If I am not in London in a fortnight, I must be in Vienna in mid-November." But the British victory was devalued by the defeat of the Allies at the Battle of Austerlitz.
Second Anglo-Marathi War (1803–1805)
In April 1803, General Decamps arrived in India and concluded an agreement with the leaders of the Indian tribes against Great Britain. The result was the Second Anglo-Marathi War. The British troops, commanded by Generals Lake and Wellesley, prevailed over the Marathi from the beginning and inflicted a number of heavy defeats on them, as in the Battle of Assay (1803), where Arthur Wellesley successfully faced more than eightfold superiority and in 1805 forced them to make peace.
War of the Third Coalition (1805)
The Third Coalition was formed in response to Napoleon's coronation as emperor and consisted of Britain, Russia, Sweden and Ra.