July 5, 2022

Nepal (Nepali [neˈpaːl]) is a landlocked country in South Asia in the central part of the Himalayas. It borders the People's Republic of China to the north and India to the south, east and west. It has an area of ​​147,181 km² and a population of approximately 30.3 million. The capital and largest city is Kathmandu. The highest mountain in Nepal is Mount Everest, which is also the highest mountain in the world. The official language is Nepali and the predominant religion is Hinduism. On May 28, 2008, the country was declared a federal republic, but the actual change in the federation did not take place until September 20, 2015, when the new Constitution of Nepal came into effect. Archived 5/16/2020 at the Wayback Machine. On November 3, 2020, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Nepal notified all diplomatic missions of foreign countries that the Government of Nepal has decided to use only the short name Nepal instead of the current name Federative Democratic Republic of Nepal in all formal communications. However, the decision of the Government of Nepal made on 27 September 2020 was not submitted to the Federal Parliament of Nepal for approval, creating controversy.


The territory of today's Nepal was gradually settled by Tibetan tribes, who created their own principality here. In the second half of the 18th century, the Gurkhas united a number of fragmented kingdoms around their kingdom in central Nepal. In 1792, after a lost war, a treaty was concluded between Nepal and China, according to which Nepal paid tribute to China every five years (until 1908). In 1814–1816, troops of the British East India Company attacked Nepal and forced it to cede to Britain parts of the territory in present-day India (e.g. Sikkim, most of the Terai) conquered not long before by the Nepalese Gurkhas. The peace treaty obliged the British to pay annual compensation to Nepal for the territories taken away, on the other hand, it obliged Nepal not to attack these territories again and prohibited the King of Nepal from hiring British, European or American soldiers, which meant a certain limitation of Nepal's international sovereignty. Today's Nepal itself, unlike India, was never conquered and controlled by the British militarily. In 1846, the Rana dynasty took over power in the country for 105 years, supporting British influence in the country. Shortly after the League of Nations was founded, the Prime Minister of Nepal forced Britain to sign a new treaty that would guarantee Nepal full international independence, which happened in 1923. Nepal became an independent member of the League of Nations in 1925. It helped in both world wars Nepal to British India. In 1950, a popular uprising overthrew the ruling Rana family and restored the power of the old royal dynasty. In 1959, the king issued a truncated constitution that left the king with near-absolute power. However, Maoist insurgents began to grow stronger in the country and civil war broke out. Maoists, heavily influenced by communism, took control of part of the country and government troops were unable to defeat the insurgents. A new, more democratic constitution was issued in 1990 after the riots, but even this move could not stop the Maoists. Demonstrations broke out across the country and caused the fall of the monarchy. Nepal has been a republic since May 28, 2008. In April 2015, Nepal was hit by a devastating earthquake. The tremors reached a magnitude of 7.8 and had an epicenter in the central part of the country. Strong tremors claimed more than 8 thousand dead and thousands more injured, completely destroyed more than half a million houses and damaged hundreds of thousands more. At the same time, the situation was complicated by extensive landslides and winter.


The highest ridge of the Himalayas with the world's highest mountain, Mount Everest (8,848 m above sea level), forms the country's northern border with China. The central part of the country consists of hills and highlands with fertile valleys, a kind of foothills of the Himalayas, reaching heights of up to 3,000 meters, on