Nobel price for literature
The Nobel Prize for Literature, Swedish Nobelpriset i litteratur, is one of the five Nobel Prizes. According to Alfred Nobel's will, it is awarded "for the most outstanding literary work in an ideal direction." The ceremonial announcement of the annual laureate takes place in Stockholm with the participation of the King of Sweden.
In the war years 1914, 1918, 1940–1943 and also in 1935, the prize was not awarded. For 2018, the prize was awarded a year later together with the prize for 2019.
The prize is generally awarded only to living authors. The only exception was the Swede Erik Axel Karlfeldt, who was awarded the posthumous award for 1931 (he died in April 1931).
The only Czech to whom the Nobel Prize for Literature was awarded is the poet Jaroslav Seifert. In the years 1936–1944, the Czechoslovak citizen was also the winner of the Nobel Prize in 1929, the German writer Thomas Mann.
Nomination of Czechs, Moravians and Slezanians for the Nobel Prize for Literature
Jaroslav Vrchlický, eight times: 1904, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1908, 1909, 1911, 1912.
Josef Viktor Widmann (20.2.1842–6.11.1911), six times in 1906–1908
Otokar Březina, nine times 1916 to 1929
Alois Jirásek, five times: 1918, 1919, 1920, 1921, 1930, four times by the Czech Academy of Sciences and once by Josef Zubatý and Jaroslav Novák.
Rudolf Kassner (* Sep 11, 1873 Velké Pavlovice, April 1, 1959 Sierre, Switzerland) ten times: 1930, 1931, 1932, 1935, 1938, 1948, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1959
Karel Čapek, seven times: 1932, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938, nominated by Josef Pekař, Josef Šusta and other professors of Charles University in Prague.
Franz Werfel twice: 1943 and 1945.
Jaroslav Seifert twice, first nominated in 1954 by Albert Pražák.
Nominees born in the Czech lands: Karl Kraus three times: 1926, 1928, 1930 and Sigmund Freud once: 1936. Among the world-famous nominees who did not receive the Nobel Prize despite several nominations are, for example, Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy or Henrik Ibsen.
Nobel Prize winners in literature
1901 - Sully Prudhomme (France)
1902 - Theodor Mommsen (Germany)
1903 - Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson (Norway)
1904 - Frédéric Mistral (France) and José Echegaray y Eizaguirre (Spain)
1905 - Henryk Sienkiewicz (Poland)
1906 - Giosuè Carducci (Italy)
1907 - Rudyard Kipling (United Kingdom)
1908 - Rudolf Christoph Eucken (Germany)
1909 - Selma Lagerlöf (Sweden)
1910 - Paul Johann Ludwig Heyse (Germany)
1911 - Maurice Maeterlinck (Belgium)
1912 - Gerhart Hauptmann (Germany)
1913 - Rabindranath Thakur (India)
1914 - (The financial part of the prize is invested in a special fund of the Nobel Prize for Literature.)
1915 - Romain Rolland (France)
1916 - Carl Gustaf Verner von Heidenstam (Sweden)
1917 - Karl Adolph Gjellerup and Henrik Pontoppidan (Denmark)
1918 - (The financial part of the prize is added to the special fund of the Nobel Prize for Literature.)
1919 - Carl Spitteler (Switzerland)
1920 - Knut Hamsun (Norway)
1921 - Anatole France (France)
1922 - Jacinto Benavente (Spain)
1923 - William Butler Yeats (Ireland)
1924 - Władysław Reymont (Poland)
1925 - George Bernard Shaw (Ireland)
1926 - Grazia Deledda (Italy)
1927 - Henri Bergson (France)
1928 - Sigrid Undset (Norway)
1929 - Thomas Mann (Germany)
1930 - Sinclair Lewis (United States, USA)
1931 - Erik Axel Karlfeldt (Sweden) (posthumously)
1932 - John Galsworthy (United Kingdom)
1933 - Ivan Alexeyevich Bunin (Russia / France)
1934 - Luigi Pirandello (Italy)
1935 - (The financial part of the prize was invested 1/3 in the common fund of the Nobel Prizes, 2/3 in the special fund of the Nobel Prize for Literature.)
1936 - Eugene O'Neill (USA)
1937 - Roger Martin du Gard (France)
1938 - Pearl S. Buck (USA)
1939 - Frans Eemil Sillanpää (Finland)
1940 - (Finance)