Nobel Peace Prize
The Nobel Peace Prize is one of five Nobel Prizes awarded to a person or organization (which makes the Peace Prize exceptional) that "has done the most for fraternity among nations, the abolition or downsizing of existing armies, or the organization and promotion of peace congresses." Unlike other Nobel Prizes, it is not awarded by the Swedish Academy of Sciences, but by the Norwegian Nobel Committee, appointed by the Norwegian Parliament.
No one from the Czechs has yet been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Baroness Bertha von Suttnerová, a native of Prague, has lived in the Czech Republic permanently for only thirteen years, which is why she is not one of the Czech laureates. The first Czechoslovak president, Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, was nominated a total of seventeen times, but was never awarded. Rudolf Vrba, Edvard Beneš, Čeněk Slepánek, Josef Lukl Hromádka, Václav Havel and Jiří Hájek also received nominations.
The Nobel Peace Prize is arguably the most controversial of the Nobel Prize family, and there is often heated debate over its award. In addition to disputes over the merits of nominated and awarded personalities, which are common at all other awards, there have been several cases where the awarding of certain specific individuals or organizations has caused moral outrage in the general public. Probably the biggest storms erupted in 1994 after the award of Yasser Arafat, a Palestinian politician suspected of collaborating with terrorists, when a third of the members of the award committee resigned in protest. Henry Kissinger, an American national security adviser, also had his opponents in 1973 for diplomatic negotiations in the Vietnam War (especially after the declassification of the Pentagon Papers). Barack Obama received a lukewarm reception in 2009, when the mainstream media discussed the results that the US president had achieved at the time he received the award. In early February 2012, members of the Peace Prize Committee are accused of failing to meet the 2009 selection criteria for the selection of candidates. Nobel Peace Prize winner Aung San Suu Kyi, who has been the unofficial head of the Government of Myanmar since 2015, has been accused of complicity in the genocide of the Rohingya Muslim minority.
Nobel Peace Prize winners
Countries to which the Nobel Peace Prize traveled most often:
United States - 26
United Kingdom - 14
Switzerland - 13
France - 9
Sweden, Belgium - 5
Germany - 4
Israel, South Africa - 3
Nobel Prize in Physics - Awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Nobel Prize in Chemistry - awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine - awarded by the Karolinska Institute
Nobel Prize in Literature - awarded by the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences
Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics (Swedish National Bank Prize for the Development of Economic Science in Memory of Alfred Nobel) - awarded by the Swedish Imperial Bank since 1968, not mentioned in the Nobel Will
Pictures, sounds or videos about Nobel Peace Prize on Wikimedia Commons
Official site (English)