Norway

Article

October 25, 2021

Norway (Norwegian (Bokmål), Norwegian (Nynorsk), Northern Sami Norga), the full name of the Kingdom of Norway (Norwegian (Bokmål) Kongeriket Norge), is one of the Nordic countries on the Scandinavian Peninsula in northern Europe. It has an area of ​​385,207 km2 and is home to 5,300,000 people. The capital is Oslo. Norway is a unitary state and a parliamentary monarchy. It borders Sweden on most of the southeastern border, with Finland and Russia in the northeast. Norwegian sovereignty also includes the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard (Svalbard) and the island of Jan Mayen, near Iceland. Administratively, Norway also belongs to the island of Bouvetøya in the South Atlantic. The country also claims to Peter I Island in the South Pacific and the territory of the Dronning Maud Land in Antarctica. Norway is a predominantly mountainous country, with the highest mountain Galdhøpiggen measuring 2,469 meters. Also nearby are the two Norwegian glaciers, Jostedalsbreen and Jotunheimen, which attract thousands of tourists each year. On the international road E16, connecting Oslo with Bergen on the west coast of Norway, there is the longest road tunnel in the world (Lærdal Tunnel, 24.5 km long). Norway has created the Nordic model of the welfare state. The Norwegian state also maintains its ownership in key industries such as oil and gas extraction. The oil industry accounts for about a quarter of gross domestic product (GDP). Norway is the world's 15th largest oil producer. In per capita terms, it is the largest oil producer outside the Middle East. Norway has the 4th highest GDP per capita in the world (in purchasing power parity). Since 2009, Norway has been ranked first in the UN Human Development Index. Norway also took first place in the UN World Happiness Report in 2017. According to the Democracy Index compiled by The Economist, Norway has the best democracy in the world. It also has one of the lowest crime rates in the world.

Etymology

The name was probably given to Norway by the ancient Goths or Danes and meant "way north" in their language. In the historical record of the speech of the Viking chief Ottar to the English king Alfred in about 880, today's territory of Norway is called Norðvegr. It was not until the 14th century that forms of the country's name Noreg (h) e, Norig (h) e, Norg (h) e or Norie began to be used. The official name Noreg in the Nynorsk language was adopted only after the linguistic reform of 1938, while the name Norge in the bokmål language version has been used since about 1450.

History of Norway

Prehistory

Traces of the first human settlement are linked by archaeologists to a culture called Ahrensburgien (named after the village of Ahrensburg, located 25 km northeast of Hamburg, in the later German state of Schleswig-Holstein). This culture is localized in the northern European lowlands in the period 9 - 7 thousand years BC. The members of this culture were mainly reindeer hunters who lived in tents or slightly sunken huts. They used split tips with a petiole, spears and bows. These oldest traces of human settlement in Norway are located along the coast, where a glacier retreated after the last ice age, between 11,000 and 8,000 BC. The most valuable finds include those from around 5000 BC from northern Norway, from Finnmark, especially from the village of Alta, where remarkable rock carvings were discovered, depicting hunting (now a UNESCO World Heritage Site). Archaeologists sometimes refer to the Komsa culture in connection with these findings. The second center of finds from this period is located in the southwest of the country, in Rogaland (Fosna culture). The great distance of these finds has long led to the belief that they were two different cultures, but it is usually from

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