Cereals

Article

August 14, 2022

Cereals are plants from the ryegrass family, used, bred and grown primarily for their seeds - grains or grains. Cereals, cereals, cereals are also primarily used for human nutrition. Pollination is mainly wind-pollinated. Cereal in the form of grain is the main cereal product. Grains are used either whole (rice, rye, barley, oats), ground, i.e. partially or completely stripped of the grain envelope (groats, white rice), or ground (whole grain flour - ground whole grain, flakes (not only oat), groats, white flour or semolina). Grain mainly contains starch, minerals, vitamins, oils and fiber. Grains are also fed directly. Whole plants are used as green fodder. The above-ground part is ensiled (maize is sown), processed as straw (wheat, barley) or made into mats, baskets, brushes (sorghum). The global share of cereals in human nutrition is estimated at 60-70%. World production of cereals (excluding rice) in the 2009/2010 season was almost 1,800 million tonnes, of which 34% was used for food production, 42% for feed production, 16% for industrial use (e.g. biofuel production) and the rest stored. Cereal research is carried out by the Kroměříž Agricultural Research Institute (formerly the Cereal Research Institute) in Kroměříž.

Botanical classification

Cereals belong to the Poaceae family, also known as grasses, of the Poales order. They are annual and perennial herbs with a bundle root system. The stem, called a stalk, is composed of long hollow links (internodes) and nodes (nodes), where elongation occurs, i.e. the growth of the entire plant. Most species produce several offshoots. The sheath of the leaves growing from the knees turns into a leaf blade with parallel veins. A tongue grows at the interface of the scabbard and the blade, and the blade is finished with lugs. The shape of the tongue and ears can be a distinguishing feature of some cereals (wheat, barley, rye, oats).

Division

Cereals are divided into two groups according to their morphological and physiological properties:

Other cereals

Coix lacryma-jobi dochan (Pennisetum) Eleusine tef (Eragrostis) paspalum (Paspalum) Phalaris hedgehog (Echinochloa) sundew (Digitaria) Cynodon (Cynodon)

Domestication of Cereals

The types of grasses, i.e. sedge-like plants, which gradually began to be cultivated, were collected and used by people long before the beginning of agriculture. For example, grains of wild wheat are attested from archaeological sites in the Fertile Crescent over 19,000 years old, although actual agriculture probably began to develop there during the relatively cool and dry Younger Dryas about 12,000 years ago. Among the most noticeable changes related to domestication are the enlargement of the grains and the non-degradability of the ears in the case of cereals. In the wild predecessors of cereals, mature ears break into individual spikelets, which improves their ability to spread in the wild, but complicates their harvesting. Varieties that lost this feature and the axis of their cob ceased to break were much easier to harvest, more sown by archaic farmers and, thanks to this (unconscious) breeding, quickly became dominant in culture.

Wheat

The domestication of wheat (Triticum) is relatively complicated and grasses of the related genus Aegilops also participate in it. Both wheat and sedges are originally standard diploid ryegrasses with seven pairs of chromosomes in the nucleus. One of these diploid types of wheat is monocotyledonous wheat (T. monococcum), now rarely cultivated, but a (pre)historically important crop. The center of distribution of wild einkorn extends from Turkey through Syria and Iraq to �