August 14, 2022
Pedagogy is a social science that examines the essence, structure and regularities of upbringing and education as a deliberate, goal-oriented and systematic activity that shapes a person's personality in various spheres of social life. It studies and critically evaluates the intellectual heritage of the past, follows the development of education, upbringing and education abroad and, in cooperation with other scientific disciplines, formulates new development trends for various areas of education and training. Pedagogy as a general field is further divided into specific pedagogies (e.g. music or art pedagogy) and specialization as didactics of specific fields (e.g. didactics of mathematics) with their methodologies. He works closely with psychology, especially pedagogical, but also recently with neuroscience and personality psychology. Scientific pedagogy studied in doctoral studies at the faculties of philosophy (Ph.D.) is historically based on the philosophy of education, at the faculties of pedagogy it focuses mainly on specific didactics of school subjects. The main difference is that philosophical pedagogy searches for, compares and analyzes the meaning and concept of individual philosophical categories for education and learning in general in life (Faculty of Philosophy, UK), but teacher pedagogy is more practically focused, especially for the school environment and educational system (Faculty of Pedagogy, UK ). There is an ongoing dispute as to the extent to which pedagogy should be a normative science, i.e. how much it should focus on defining the goals, content and purpose of education and how much it should primarily be a neutral description and clarification of educational phenomena and processes. E.g. Průcha defines pedagogy as a science that "deals with (1) everything that creates and determines an educational environment, (2) the processes that are implemented in these environments, (3) the results and effects of these processes." Currently (2009 ) there is no unified concept of pedagogy, nor agreement on the main purpose of pedagogy. Different concepts differ according to individual authors, theoretical directions and cultural orientation characteristic of a certain country. Jan Amos Komenský is considered the founder of pedagogy as a science of education, and J. F. Herbart can be considered the founder of modern pedagogical theory.