Transnistria

Article

May 28, 2022

Transnistrian Republic of Moldova, abbreviated to Transnistria or Transnistria or Transnistria (Moldovan Нистрене, Romanian Transnistria, Russian Приднестровье or Приднестровская Молдавская Республы , resp. 1991 broke away from the Moldovan SSR. Only Nagorno-Karabakh, South Ossetia and Abkhazia have recognized the international state, and these territories are also not internationally recognized. It is a narrow strip of territory along the Dniester River, which, with the exception of two small bridgeheads, is located entirely on its left bank. The Moldovan authorities therefore refer to this territory as the "Left Bank of the Dniester" (Stînga Nistrului). For a change, there are enclaves within Transnistria that are controlled by Moldova. It is often known around the world under the Romanian name Transnistria (Transnistria), but the Transnistrian authorities in the capital Tiraspol reject the term on the grounds that it is a Romanian fascist term that used to mean a much larger territory during World War II. today's Ukraine (Podolí), where Romanian Jews were deported.

Characteristics

Apart from Nagorno-Karabakh, South Ossetia and Abkhazia, Transnistria's independence has not yet been recognized by any other state or international organization. In 1992, a short war took place between the Moldovan army and the Transnistrian armed forces, supported by the 14th Russian Army, stationed in Transnistria. The war ended in a stalemate because the Moldovan army was not strong enough to defeat the Transnistrian and Russian armed forces. Transnistria occupies about one-eighth of Moldova, with over 500,000 inhabitants. The Moldovan government in Chisinau has no jurisdiction over this territory. In the capital of Transnistria, Tiraspol, there is de facto an independent body with all the hallmarks of a state, with its own legislative, judicial and executive powers. Transnistria has its own currency and army, which tries to be a guarantee of the inviolability of Transnistria. People suspected of links to organized crime have appeared in the Transnistrian government, eg Minister of State Security Vladimir Yuryevich Antufeyev was accused of crimes committed in Riga in the early 1990s. The official languages ​​in Transnistria are Russian and Romanian (Moldovan), but written, unlike Moldova, Cyrillic. In 2004, schools that had previously taught Romanian Latin in Transnistria were closed. Transnistria is a major destabilizing factor in the region. It concentrates on the arms trade (among others, the Russian 14th Army has left almost 40,000 tons of ammunition in the country), which are also produced in this area and often flow through Odessa to Abkhazia and South Ossetia. In addition to the arms trade, the Tiraspolian government also benefits from the smuggling of oil, alcohol and tobacco from and to neighboring countries. Russia holds a protective hand over Transnistria, which partially controls the area under the pretext of protecting the ethnic Russians who live here. The region thus remains an area of ​​Russian influence near the EU's borders.

History

Historically, the northern part of present-day Transnistria was under the influence of the Polish-Lithuanian Union, of which it was a part for over four centuries (1365–1793). The right-bank part of Transnistria belonged to the Principality of Moldova until 1792, and was subsequently annexed to Russia. The southern tip of Transnistria has been under Tatar influence since the Golden Horde, after its disintegration it belonged to the Crimean Khanate, which was conquered by Russia in 1783. At the end of the 18th century, the whole of Transnistria was annexed to the Russian Empire. Almost the whole of today's Transnistria lies on the rest of the territory, which in the period of the 19th