Yang Jing-lung Uprising

Article

July 1, 2022

The Yang Jing-lung Rebellion is the name given to the rebellion of Yang Jing-lung, chief of the Miao tribes on the border of the Ming provinces of Huguang, Kuizhou and Sichuan in southwest China, against the rule of Ming Emperor Wanli in the 1690s. century. The problems of the Ming authorities with Yang Jing-lung continued from 1587. Open fighting began in 1590 and lasted - with a break in negotiations in 1594 - throughout the 1990s until 1600. Immediately after the end of the Korean War, an official with military experience was entrusted with the suppression of Yang's rebellion Li Chua-lung, who arrived in Chongqing in 1599 and carefully planned the spring offensive. The fighting of 1600 lasted 104 days, according to Li Chua-lung's final report, over 22 thousand rebels were killed, Yang Jing-lung committed suicide, and his country was incorporated into the standard Chinese administrative system.

Clan Yang and Yang Jing-lung

The Yang family, descendants of a 9th-century Tang general, controlled the mountainous region on the border of Chuguang, Guizhou, and Sichuan with an area of ​​over 300 km in the east-west direction and slightly less in the north-south direction. The center of the region was in Po-chou. The clan ruled the mentioned territory for many centuries and although it was originally Chinese, over time it assimilated and identified with the local Miao tribes. During the reign of the Yuan Khan and Emperor Kublai (in the second half of the 13th century), they were given the title of süan-wei š' ("reconciliation commissioner") Po-chou. In the Ming Empire, Yang chieftains held the title of Conciliation Commissioner, received a minor third official rank, and were required to surrender 200 tons of wood and other supplies, including horses, every three years. In addition to the Yang family, however, there were other influential families in the region, and their disputes had to be pacified by the Ming authorities from time to time. Yang Jing-lung inherited the position after the death of his father in 1571. He distinguished himself on the Ming side in battles with other natives and Tibetans. He received recognition from the Ming court for the quality of the wood supplied. Despite accusations from some officials, as a successful commander he was promoted to regional military commissar, receiving the major third rank (3a). However, he was even more ambitious and considered the Ming troops to be weak. He became involved in the disputes of the local Miao tribes with the Chinese colonists by attacking the former. The government in Beijing at first rejected the local authorities' requests for intervention, saying that there were more important problems to solve, and Yang Jing-lung was only looking for an opportunity to distinguish himself. However, the Ministry of War was ordered to investigate the situation and reorganize the local administration.

Rebellion

Riots and fighting, defense of Ming detachments (1587–1599)

The riots started as early as 1587, when, under the influence of a new favorite concubine, he divorced his current first wife and subsequently massacred her family and began plundering the region. The affected clan complained to the provincial authorities. In 1590, Yang Jing-lung's Miao started open fights with hostile clans, which forced the attention of the Ming authorities. Guizhou Pacification Commissioner Jie Meng-siung accused Yang of 24 crimes, but Sichuan Regional Inspector Li Hualung proposed pardoning Yang on the basis of past merits, and the matter then stalled in inter-ministerial consultations in Beijing. Armed clashes in the region continued, Jie Meng-siung therefore requested a military campaign against Po-chou. However, Yang Jing-lung submitted and in early 1593 surrendered to the Szechuan authorities, from whom he apparently hoped for a softer approach than in Kuezhou. At the beginning of 1593, however, he was – unexpectedly – ​​sentenced to death in Chongqing. He responded by offering to pay 20,000 liang (746 kg) of silver, raise 5,000 soldiers, and personally lead them into the war in Korea. The Ming Emperor Wan-li agreed, and the commanders of the troops in Korea impatiently, Fr