Rudolf of Habsburg


December 3, 2021

Rudolf of Habsburg (around 1281 - July 3, 1307 Horažďovice) was the Duke of Austria and Styria, the Moravian Margrave, the Ninth Czech King and the titular Polish King of the Habsburg dynasty. He was born the son of the Duke of Austria and Styria, Albrecht I of Habsburg, and his wife, Elizabeth of Gorilla-Tyrol. After his father became King of Rome in 1298, he left Rudolf in Austria and Styria. In 1300, Rudolf married Blanka, the sister of King Philip IV of France. Sličného. At first he actively supported the Duke Henry of Carinthia in his conflicts with the Carinthian nobility. However, Austrian-Carinthian relations deteriorated significantly after Henry refused to take part in the Habsburg campaign in Bohemia against Wenceslas II in 1304. Rudolf was one of the leading leaders of this campaign, which eventually ended in a military fiasco. In 1306, the Czech King Wenceslas III was assassinated, and because he died without male descendants, the Přemyslid dynasty no longer had any male members. Although Henry of Carinthia was elected the new Czech king, the Roman King Albrecht of Habsburg declared the Czech Kingdom a dead fief that fell to the empire and, together with his son Rudolf, invaded Bohemia. After the bribery of the Czech lords, Rudolf and Albrecht expelled Jindřich from the territory of Bohemia. Rudolf, who was widowed in 1305, was then elected King of Bohemia and married Eliška Rejčka, widow of Wenceslas II. He also left the government in Austria to his younger brother Friedrich. During his short reign in Bohemia, Rudolf earned the nickname "King of Kash" for his alleged austerity. However, the austerity was apparently entirely appropriate in his situation, as the royal treasury was heavily indebted. At the beginning of January 1307, Albrecht granted Bohemia and Moravia to Rudolf and his younger sons and introduced a new succession order, according to which, in the event of Rudolf's childless death, the Czech throne should belong to the eldest of his younger brothers. In the southwest of Bohemia, a wave of aristocratic resistance led by Bavaria III soon arose against Rudolf. from Strakonice and Vilém Zajíc from Valdek. Rudolf therefore launched a campaign against the rebellious lords in June 1307, which achieved considerable success. The Bavarian from Strakonice was eventually besieged in Horažďovice, where he surrendered. On the same day, however, Rudolf succumbed to dysentery in front of Horažďovice and was buried in St. Vitus Basilica at Prague Castle. He was again replaced by Henry of Carinthia on the Czech throne.



Rudolf III. The Habsburgs were born around 1281 as the eldest of the six sons of the Duke of Austria and Styria, Albrecht I of Habsburg, and his wife, Elizabeth of Gorilla-Tyrol, the sister of Duke Henry of Carinthia.

Admission to the Ducal See and Marriage

In June 1298, at a meeting in Mainz, the Electors of the Roman throne deposed Adolf Nasavsky, the chief of the Habsburgs, and immediately elected Rudolf's father, Albrecht, as the new Roman German king. Albrecht of the Count of Nasava then defeated the Battle of Göllheim, in which Adolf fell. After the coronation of King Albrecht of Rome in November 1298, he held a grand celebration in Nuremberg, where he granted the Duchy of Austria and Styria in a joint fief to his sons Rudolf III, Frederick I and Leopold I. Because Friedrich was nine years old and Leopold was only five years old. , the de facto government in Austria and Styria was to be exercised by their older brother Rudolf, who was then between the ages of 15 and 18. Nevertheless, Albrecht kept the main word in these countries. As early as 1295, Albrecht unsuccessfully tried to marry members of the Habsburg and Capetian dynasties ruling in France. After Albrecht ascended the Roman throne, he began again

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