October 23, 2021

Russia (Russian, Rossija), full name Russian Federation (Russian Российская Федерация, Rossijskaja feděracija), is the largest country in the world with an area of ​​17,098,246 km². It includes much of Eastern Europe and almost all of North Asia. With a population of 146.1 million, the Russian Federation is the ninth most populous country in the world. Russia's neighbors are (from the northwest counterclockwise): Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, again China and North Korea. Through the Kaliningrad region, a strategic western exclave, it also borders Lithuania and Poland. The Russian Kuril Islands are in sight of Japan and the Chukotka Peninsula, which belongs to Russia, is not far from Alaska (United States, USA). The territory of Russia is divided into 11 time zones and 85 self-governing units, of which 22 are republics. The Russian Federation is the main successor state to the Soviet Union (USSR), which disintegrated in 1991. It took the place of the USSR as a permanent member of the UN Security Council with a veto. It is a leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States. It is a member of the G20, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), OSKB, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), APEC and other international organizations. Due to its largest size in the world, large reserves of natural resources and other preconditions for economic self-sufficiency, and especially due to its military strength (it has a large arsenal of nuclear and conventional weapons and ballistic missiles), Russia is considered one of the world's powers along with the United States and China. The Russian economy has the world's sixth largest GDP by purchasing power parity and the eleventh largest GDP in nominal terms. In terms of GDP per capita, it is in 66th place and according to GDP, purchasing power parity per capita is in 52nd place. Among the countries of the world, it has the largest reserves of natural resources - minerals, oil, natural gas, wood and also drinking water. From an energy point of view, Russia is a completely self-sufficient state. The Russian economy went through a protracted crisis in the 1990s, followed by a period of strong growth between 2000 and 2007. Growth was interrupted by the global financial crisis from 2008 to 2009, but then continued to a lesser extent from 2010 to 2014. From the end of 2014 to 2016, the Russian economy experienced a decline due to lower raw material prices and economic sanctions by Western countries. In 2014, Russia was also suspended from membership in the G8 group of the world's most economically advanced countries in response to its annexation of Crimea. Russia manufactures modern weapons of various kinds, not least tanks, aircraft and ballistic missiles for military use. It accounts for about a quarter of the world arms trade, ranking second in the world after the United States. However, in terms of per capita arms sales, the US is almost twice as large as the country with the largest per capita gains from the arms industry. Orthodox Christianity (50% of the population) has a great influence in Russia, although atheism was also violently promoted in the country during the Soviet Union and the Communist Party government. Other major religions in Russia in terms of number of believers include Islam (10% of the population), Judaism and Buddhism. In the fields of culture such as literature, classical music, ballet and the visual arts, Russian artists achieved worldwide success in both the 19th and 20th centuries. Today's Russia is a multi-ethnic state which, in addition to official Russian, also recognizes the regional languages ​​of individual national minorities. Russians make up 80% of the population. The most numerous minority are the Tatars, who st

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