United Kingdom

Article

October 25, 2021

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, abbreviated as Great Britain or United Kingdom or Britain, is an island nation off the northwest coast of continental Europe. It includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, where it has a land border with the Republic of Ireland, and a number of smaller islands. It is surrounded by the North Sea, the English Channel, the Celtic Sea, the Strait of St George and the Irish Sea, and is connected to continental Europe by the Eurotunnel. It covers an area of ​​242,500 km2 and by 2017 there were about 66 million people living in it. It is a constitutional monarchy, headed by Queen Elizabeth II. and the current prime minister is Boris Johnson. It consists of four countries, England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, which is sometimes referred to as a province or region. With the exception of England, these countries have their own parliaments and governments, acting within the powers conferred on them by the British Parliament. In addition, the UK includes 14 overseas territories. The British Crown Dependencies are the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands, which are held by the British Crown (Sovereign) in direct ownership; they are therefore not part of the United Kingdom, but together with it form a whole known as the British Islands. Significant cultures originated in today's Britain since the Neolithic. The proof is the Stonehenge monument in southern England. In the 4th century BC, the Celts came to the country. In the 1st century AD, a large part of the country was ruled by the Roman Empire and established its province called Britannia, which existed until the 5th century. Then the lands were seized by Germanic tribes collectively called Anglo-Saxons, who from the 8th century faced the invasions of the Vikings. The Anglo-Saxons then succumbed to the Normans, the descendants of the Vikings, the Franks and the disputed Gauls of northern France. Their invasion led by William the Conqueror in 1066 connected England with the Duchy of Normandy. About a hundred years later, this enabled the establishment of the Anjou Empire of the Plantagenet dynasty on both sides of the English Channel. Although the English kings gradually lost their states in France, they managed to control Wales and Ireland. Henry VIII In 1534, Tudor introduced the Reformation to the British Isles and founded the Anglican State Church. In 1603 King James I Stuart of Scotland inherited the English throne; later in 1707, the two states were united by laws of union into the Kingdom of Great Britain. The English Civil War (1642–1651) and the famous revolution (1688) strengthened the power of parliament and led to the creation of a constitutional monarchy. Britain became a leading naval, commercial and colonial power, which was supported in the 18th and 19th centuries by the industrial revolution that took place here: for example, the loom and the steam engine were improved, and the steam locomotive was invented. Although the American Revolution (1776) and the independence of the United States weakened Great Britain, in the 19th century, during the long reign of Queen Victoria, the British Empire became the largest and most powerful state in the world. In the 20th century, Britain was on the side of the victors in both world wars, but its colonial empire disintegrated and in 1922 the Republic of Ireland became independent. The United Kingdom is a highly developed country, the seventh largest economy in the world with the second highest defense spending. Its capital and largest city is London, with a metropolitan area of ​​about 10.3 million people and considered one of the world's most important metropolises. It is one of the world's largest centers of finance and the center of the British economy, science and culture. The United Kingdom is a central member of the Commonwealth, which has 53 member states and brings together former British dominions and colonies such as Canada, Australia, New Zealand, India

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