Freedom and direct democracy
Freedom and Direct Democracy (SPD) is a Czech political movement, founded in the first half of 2015 by deputies Tomie Okamura and Radim Fiala, who left the Dawn of Direct Democracy movement after a rift in a parliamentary group. The movement's program is dominated by nationalism, manifested in particular in its opposition to illegal immigration and Islam, and the demand for direct democracy in the form of the revocability of politicians and judges and referendums on important issues. The position of the party on the right-left spectrum is discussed as controversial, sometimes it is included in the far right. The movement is often characterized as populist, radical, nationalist or authoritarian.
The Freedom and Direct Democracy movement arose as a result of several months of crisis in the previous work of both founders, whose leadership was taken over by MP Marek Černoch. Both wars blamed for allegedly withdrawing money from the movement, Tomio Okamura called his opponents coups, but most of Dawn opposed him. Okamura and Radim Fiala, who expelled the rest of the movement from their ranks in March 2015, set up their own movement and in May applied for registration of Freedom and Direct Democracy with the Ministry of the Interior. In addition to this pair, Jaroslav Staník also played on the preparatory committee. On June 16, 2015, they stated that the movement had received registration and began recruiting members. Tomio Okamura said at the time that he had thousands of candidates for membership.
The movement is a programmatic follow-up to the Dawn of Direct Democracy. The movement's program is dominated by patriotism (patriotism, nationalism), manifested mainly by resistance to illegal immigration, and the demand for direct democracy in the form of both the revocability of politicians and judges, and referendums on important issues, including withdrawal from the EU or NATO. Shortly after the movement was founded, MP Fiala stated that the SPD was a right-wing movement with clear political goals, as it was striving for fundamental changes in the Czech political system. He also stated that his basic program is "the promotion of direct democracy and the responsibility of politicians in the political system of the Czech Republic and the consistent defense of the national interests of our country." The movement also wanted to "consistently oppose tax increases and defend the interests of people who work or do business honestly." The movement seeks, among other things, to introduce a general referendum, including those on international issues, such as the Czech Republic's withdrawal from the European Union and the like. A petition for a referendum was discussed in January 2016, but the proposal was rejected by the Chamber of Deputies. According to sociologist Daniel Prokop of the Median agency, it is difficult to place the movement on the political spectrum, as it ranks "addressing the injured part of the population" on the left, and "rhetoric against the so-called maladaptive" on the right. In 2017, lawyer and publicist Petr Kolman described the alleged right-wing movement as a cliché of distant reality, for example, he called the program of revocability of politicians and judges a program item from both Trotskyists and the demand for direct democracy (referendums to almost everything) or left-wingness is also indicated by the takeover of the electorate, mainly from the CSSD and the KSCM. However, Kolman relativizes his arguments by saying that "the political spectrum is actually a circle, not a straight line", that the division between right and left is losing its meaning today, and that de facto the movement does not belong to the left, but is "elaborate populism “. In her diploma thesis in 2015, student Iva Vránková evaluated him as right-wing populist. While sociologist Daniel Prokop considers “addressing the hurt