The Three Great Campaigns of the Wan-li Era


July 1, 2022

The Three Great Campaigns of the Wan-li Era (Chinese in the Czech transcription Wan-li san ta-cheng, pchin-jin during the reign of Emperor Wan-li in 1592-1600, namely the Ningxia Uprising, the Imjin War, and the Yang Jing-lung Uprising.

Three moves

The term "Three Great Camps of the Wan-li Era" was first used by the late Ming scholars Feng Meng-lung (1574–1646) and Ku Jing-tai (1620–1690). They described it as the three most important wars waged by the Ming Empire during the reign of Emperor Wan-li (reigned 1572-1620), namely the uprising of indigenous tribes in the southwest, the uprising of Chinese and Mongolian troops of the Ming army in the northwest and the Imjan war in the east. Uprising in Ning-sia in March-October 1592 - Uprising of Chinese and Mongolian garrison soldiers in Ning-sia. The insurgents had 20 or 30 thousand soldiers, the city had a population of 300 thousand. The Ming government has amassed 40,000 troops equipped with hundreds of cannons to quell the rebellion. The siege dragged on for several months, the ongoing clashes were not successful for either side. The insurgents tried to gain the support of the Mongol khanes, but the Ming generals did not let themselves be surprised and repulsed the Mongol attempts to help the insurgents. The stalemate was decided by the construction of a dam around the city, after being filled with water, the city was flooded and the water disrupted the city's castles. The morale of the defenders was also undermined by the lack of food. On October 20, 1592, the city was conquered, rebel leaders perished or captured and executed. The Imjan War of 1592–1598 - By the early 1990s, Japanese military leader Hideyoshi Toyotomi had united Japan under his rule. However, the rule over Japan was not enough for his ambitions, so he decided to conquer Korea and then Ming China. Japanese troops landed in Korea in May 1592. The poorly prepared Korean army did not put up much resistance, and the Japanese advanced rapidly, occupying Seoul after twenty days and continued further north. However, the occupation of the country provoked a wave of popular resistance, which grew into a guerrilla war. The victory of the Korean Navy, led by Admiral I Sunsin, in the summer and autumn of 1592 played an important role in the organization of the resistance. Until May 1593, Sino-Korean troops pushed the Japanese into the vicinity of Busan in southeastern Korea. In 1593, the Japanese agreed to negotiate an armistice in order to gain time for a new offensive. But another invasion in 1597 was not successful, the Japanese were pushed southeast again, and after Hideyoshi's death in September 1598, they withdrew from Korea by the end of the year. Yang Ying-lung Uprising in 1590-1600 on the border of the Ming provinces of Guizhou, Guizhou, and Sichuan in southwest China. The problems of the Ming authorities with Yang Jing-lung lasted from 1587. Open fighting began in 1590 and lasted intermittently until the 1990s. together with generals called in from Korea. After several months of careful preparation, Li Hua-lung gathered perhaps as many as 240,000 troops in eight corps, with whom he launched a final offensive in March 1600. There were perhaps as many as 150,000 insurgent soldiers. The fighting lasted until mid-July 1600, when the Ming army captured Yang Jing-lung's Hailong-chun headquarters. Yang Jing-lung committed suicide and his country was incorporated into the standard