October 20, 2021

Tanzania, the full name of the United Republic of Tanzania (in Swahili Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a state in East Africa. It is bordered by Kenya in the northeast, Uganda in the north, Rwanda and Burundi in the northwest, the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the west, Zambia and Malawi in the southwest, and Mozambique in the south. In Tanzania is Africa's highest mountain Kilimanjaro, the largest lake in Africa - Victoria, as well as the deepest lake on the continent of Tanganyika. The country has a population of 61 million (estimated in 2021). The population consists of approximately 120 ethnic, linguistic and religious groups, making Tanzania the most diverse country in East Africa. The official language is not specified, in practice this function has Swahili, which is taught in primary schools. About 10 percent of Tanzanians have Swahili as their first language, 90 percent as their second. It is taught in universities in English, although the Tanzanian government intends to end the practice. Since 1996, it has been the capital of Dodom, home to the president, parliament and all ministries. The former capital of Dar es Salaam is the largest city in the country, a major port and a leading commercial center. The most widespread religion is Christianity, but there is also a large Muslim and animist minority. Tanzania was founded in 1964 by merging two originally independent states: Tanganyika, located on the lake of the same name, and the island of Zanzibar. The name Tanzania is derived from the names of both founding states. However, the area has a much longer history, many important fossils have been found here, according to which experts reconstruct the oldest development of the human species and human ancestors. The city of Kilwa Kisiwani (now a World Heritage Site) was the pearl of medieval East Africa and a major center of commerce. In the years 1885–1919, the territory was a German colony called German East Africa. Then it came under British control. Tanganyika gained independence from Britain in 1961, Zanzibar two years later.


Tanzania is one of the longest populated countries in the world. There are famous paleoanthropological and archaeological sites, releasing the remains of the first humans (Homo habilis) and their ancestors of the genus Australopithecus (A. afarensis, A. aeethiopicus). In addition, footprints of bipedal hominins were captured in Laetoli, while the nearby Olduvai Gorge is famous for the discovery of the oldest remains of stone tools. The oldest indigenous tribes in the area were probably the Hadz and Sandav, who were hunters and gatherers. In the Stone and Bronze Ages (about 2000 BC) there was a massive migration to the territory of present-day Tanzania, especially the tribes that spoke Kushita languages. A little later, people speaking Nilot languages ​​(a group of East Sudanese languages) settled in the north, and Bantu speakers spoke around Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika. They then spread throughout present-day Tanzania. They brought with them an innovation in the form of growing plants, especially puffins and their starchy tubers called pits. Late migratory waves include the arrival of the Maasai, which began in about 500. The Pare family, who settled under Kilimanjaro, developed the first technique for making iron. The Hajians on the west shore of Lake Victoria invented a type of blast furnace that allowed them to forge high carbon steel at temperatures in excess of 1820 ° C more than 1,500 years ago. In the 3rd century, the interior of Tanzania was inhabited by San tribes, which gradually began to displace the Bantu tribes. There is evidence of limited involvement of coastal areas and Zanzibar in long-distance trade: small quantities of imported ceramics were found (less than 1% of the total findings). Most of the goods were from the Persian Gulf, these

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