Taiwan or Taiwan (English Taiwan, Chinese hanyu pinyin Táiwān, tongyong pinyin Táiwan, characters 台灣 or 臺灣, Taiwanese Tâi-oân), full name Republic of China (Chinese in Czech transliteration Chung-hua min-kuo, Pinyin Zhōnghuá Mínguó , characters of traditional 中華民國, tongyong pinyin Jhonghuá Mínguó, Taiwanese Tiong-hoâ Bîn-kok),
is an island nation spread over the island of the same name, Taiwan (formerly called Formosa) and other islands off the southeast coast of China. Approximately 23.6 million inhabitants live here. Taiwan's closest overseas neighbors are the People's Republic of China to the west and northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south.
The Republic of China on the island of Taiwan is the legal continuation of the mainland Republic of China from 1912-1949, which was formally proclaimed on January 1, 1912 and replaced the Qing Empire, then ruled by the Qing Dynasty. In 1945, the Republic of China gained administration over the island of Taiwan, which had been part of the Japanese Empire since 1895. At the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1949, the main units loyal to the Republic of China government withdrew from the mainland to this island. The Communist Party of China under the leadership of Mao Zedong, who proclaimed the People's Republic of China, took over the government of all of mainland China. Currently, Taiwan as an internationally unrecognized state includes, in addition to the island of Taiwan, the Pescador Islands (Peng-chu) in the Taiwan Strait, the islands of Lü-tao, Lan-yü, Jin-men (also Kinmen in the Taiwanese transcription), the Ma- cu (sometimes also Matsu) and other small islands.
The Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in the Czech Republic uses the honored term Taiwan. The Czech Republic does not officially recognize Taiwan as an independent state, therefore their representation in Prague has the status of an economic and cultural office. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic also uses Taiwan as an official designation. The International Olympic Committee uses the English name Chinese Taipei (Chinese 中華台北/Chung-hua Taipei, Czech Chinese Taipei) to designate the country. This name is used by Taiwan for activities in various international organizations and activities, sporting and otherwise, because both sides (the People's Republic of China and Taiwan) can agree on it. The Chinese term 中華/Zhonghua is not tied to a specific country or government, but rather to a culture.
Early history and the arrival of the Chinese
Taiwan was connected to the Asian mainland by a land bridge before sea levels rose and became an island about 10,000 years ago. It was inhabited by humans before, human remains from 20,000 to 30,000 years ago have been found. Cultures have been developing since the Paleolithic. About 6,000 years ago, Taiwan was settled by farmers who most likely crossed over from what is now southeastern China. These were the ancestors of today's aboriginal tribes of Taiwan. They spoke Austronesian languages, however, the variety of these languages in the small territory of Taiwan is striking and has led some historians to believe that Taiwan was actually the ancestral home of the Austronesians, who from there gradually settled a large area by sea, from Madagascar, through New Zealand and Hawaii to after Easter Island. These inhabitants did not have much tendency to establish a centralized state, but in the middle of the 17th century they did establish a similar state, it was called the kingdom of Middag. The first mentions of Taiwan in Chinese sources come from the 3rd to 7th centuries. In the 12th century, the first peasant settlements were founded by Chinese settlers, mainly on the Pescador Islands. At the beginning of the 17th century, the first significant migration of Chinese to Taiwan took place. This was initiated by the Dutch, who in