Tehran Conference


December 3, 2021

The Tehran conference (codenamed Eureka) was the first personal meeting of the main representatives of the USSR, the USA and Great Britain during the Second World War. The meeting of Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill (the so-called Big Three) took place on November 28 - December 1, 1943 in the Iranian capital Tehran. The meeting discussed issues that largely determined the post-war fate of Central and Eastern Europe, the main result of which was the commitment of the Western Allies to open a second front against Nazi Germany. This conference was preceded by the Third Moscow Conference of Foreign Ministers of the USSR, the United States and the United Kingdom, held from 18 October 1943 to 1 November 1943, and a conference in Cairo on 22-26 November 1943 between Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill and Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. The Tehran Conference was immediately followed on December 4-6, 1943 by the Second Cairo Conference between F. D. Roosevelt, W. Churchill, and Turkish President İsmet İnönü. The Big Three still met during the war at a conference in Yalta on February 4-11, 1945, and later at a conference in Potsdam on July 17 - August 2, 1945.


After the outbreak of the German-Soviet War in June 1941, Churchill offered to help the Soviets, and on July 12, 1941, an agreement was signed to that effect. However, Churchill reminded the audience in a spoken radio announcement announcing an alliance with the USSR that he would not change his attitude towards communism. Diplomatic and military delegations traveled between London and Moscow to ensure the implementation of this support, and when the United States joined the war in December 1941, the delegations also met in Washington. The Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCS) was set up to coordinate British and American operations and support the Soviet Union. However, the effects of the global war, the lack of a united Allied strategy and the complexity of resource allocation between Europe and Asia were not satisfactorily resolved and soon aroused mutual suspicion between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union. There was the question of opening a second front to ease German pressure on the Eastern Front, the question of mutual assistance (where Britain and the Soviet Union obtained loans and military equipment from the United States). There was tension between the United States and Britain because Washington did not show much desire to support the British Empire in its private interests. Neither the United States nor Britain was ready to give Stalin a free hand in Eastern Europe, and in the end there was no common policy to deal with Germany after the defeat of Hitler. Communication on these matters between Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin took place via telegrams and envoys - but it was clear that direct negotiations were needed. Stalin was reluctant to leave Moscow and did not want to risk traveling by plane, while Roosevelt was physically handicapped and difficult to travel. Churchill was an avid traveler and, as part of an ongoing series of war conferences, has met Roosevelt five times in North America and twice in Africa, and has also held two meetings with Stalin in Moscow. To ensure an urgent meeting, Roosevelt tried to persuade Stalin to arrive in Cairo. Stalin rejected the offer and offered to meet in Baghdad or Basra, but eventually agreed to meet in Tehran in November 1943.


The subject of the negotiations was primarily the Allied strategy on the European battlefields, specifically the opening of the Western Front. Churchill proposed to expand the activities of the Allies in the Mediterranean and thus prepare the conditions for landing in the Balkans. This proposal did not exclude the possibility of

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