July 1, 2022

Texas (English pronunciation, officially State of Texas, also Tejas in Spanish) is a state located in the southern United States, in the area of ​​the western southern states in the southern region of the USA. Texas borders Louisiana in the east, Arkansas in the northeast, Oklahoma in the north, New Mexico in the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas in the southwest and south. The southeastern border of the state is the Gulf of Mexico. With an area of ​​696,241 km2, Texas is the second largest state in the United States, in terms of population (27.9 million) it is also the second most populous state and with a population density of 41 inhabitants per km2 it is in 26th place. The capital is Austin with 890 thousand inhabitants. The largest cities are Houston with 2.2 million inhabitants, followed by San Antonio (1.4 million inhabitants), Dallas (1.3 million inhabitants), Fort Worth (790 thousand inhabitants) and El Paso (680 thousand inhabitants). . Texas owns 591 km of the Gulf Coast. The highest point of the state is the peak of Guadalupe Peak with an altitude of 2667 m in the Guadalupe Mountains. The largest flows are the Red River, which forms part of the border with Oklahoma, and the Rio Grande, which flows into the Gulf of Mexico and forms the border with Mexico. The first evidence of Europeans came to the territory of present-day Texas in 1519 and 1528. The region remained out of the interest of European powers until the 1980s, when a Spanish-Indian settlement was established in El Paso and a French colony on the Gulf Coast. lasted only four years. The whole area was claimed by the Spaniards as part of the viceroyal of New Spain, and in response to the French colonization of neighboring Louisiana in the first half of the 18th century, they tried to settle in Texas, which, however, remained very sparsely populated. The area got its name from the word tejas (ie "friends" or "allies") from the Indian language caddo. In 1821, Texas became part of independent Mexico, followed by greater colonization of the region. In 1836, after the revolution, an independent Republic of Texas was proclaimed, which in 1845, at the request of its inhabitants and politicians, was annexed by the United States. On December 29, 1845, Texas became the 28th state of the United States, to which it formally handed over its sovereignty on February 19, 1846. During the American Civil War, Texas was part of the Confederation in 1861–1865, and rejoined the Union in 1870.


Texas is the second largest U.S. state after Alaska. It is 10 percent bigger than France and twice as big as Germany or Japan. Texas is located in the southwestern part of the United States. Three of its boundaries are defined by rivers. The Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas in the south. The Red River forms the border with Oklahoma and Arkansas in the north. The Sabine River is a border river with Louisiana in the east. The borders of the Texas Panhandle are defined by geographic coordinates, the state has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100 ° W west latitude, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36 ° 30 'N north latitude, and a western border with New Mexico at 103 ° W west latitude. Texas has 3,700 streams and 15 larger rivers. The largest river is the Rio Grande. Other larger rivers are the Pecos, Brazos, Colorado and the Red River, which lines the border with Oklahoma. Texas has only a few natural lakes, but Texans have built about 100 reservoirs.


The territory of today's Texas was part of the Spanish colony of New Spain during the colonial period. From 1821 to 1836, this territory was part of the independent state of Mexico, within which the territory of Texas was divided between the states of Coahuila y Tejas (Czech Coahuila and Texas), Chihuahua, Nuevo León (Czech New Leon) and Tamaulipas, and the territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico.