October 25, 2021

Turkey, fully named the Republic of Turkey (Turkish Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a country located in Asia Minor and to a lesser extent in Southeast Europe. Turkey borders Georgia in the northeast, Armenia, Azerbaijan (Nachichevan Exclave) and Iran in the east, and Iraq and Syria in the southeast. The shores of Turkey are washed by the Mediterranean Sea and the Aegean Sea by the west. The border with Greece and Bulgaria runs on the western edge of the European part of Turkey. The northern shores of Turkey are washed by the Black Sea.


Turkish territory is one of the oldest permanently inhabited areas in the world. The oldest dwellings are still built in the Neolithic (Çatalhöyük). The first empire that existed in ancient times in present-day Turkey was the Hittite Empire from about the 18th to the 13th century BC. After the collapse of the Hittite Empire, Phrygia became the most important state, until in the 7th century BC. did not subvert the Kimmerian tribes. Among the most important successor states of Frýgia were Lýdia, Kárie and Lýkie. The Lydans and Lycans spoke an Indo-European language, but it also had non-Indo-European elements characteristic of the Hittites. Since the 12th century BC. the west coast of Anatolia was colonized by the Aeolian, Doric, and Ionian Greeks. In the 8th century BC. The Greeks colonized the entire northern (Pontos) and southern coasts. In 6.-5. century BC Anatolia was conquered by the Persians, with whom the Greeks fought. Finally, Anatolia was conquered by Alexander the Great. After his death, it split into several Hellenistic states (Bithynia, Cappadocia, Pergamon and Pontos). Many Greek inhabitants settled in different parts of Anatolia, which led to the Hellenization of the whole area. These states did not last long and until the end of the 1st century. BC all were ruled by the Roman Empire. After its division in 395, the territory of today's Turkey fell to the Byzantine Empire. From the 11th century, Turkish Seljuks penetrated the territory of today's Turkey. In 1299, Ottoman I became the first sultan of the Ottoman Empire, which, as a Muslim state, began attacks on Europe, Asia and Africa. In 1453, the last bastion of the Byzantine Empire, its capital Constantinople, fell. In 1529, the Turks besieged Vienna for the first time. The Sultan as the head of the Ottoman Empire had absolute (unlimited) power until the 19th century. From the end of the 17th century, however, the Ottoman Empire began to be pushed out of Europe, which was largely completed during the Balkan wars in the early 20th century. The Ottoman Empire lost most of its vast Arab states as a result of the First World War. The Ottoman Empire disappeared in 1923, when Mustafa Kemal Atatürk founded the Republic of Turkey. After the Kemalist revolution and the Greco-Turkish war, the Treaty of Sèvres, which deprived Turkey of much of its territory, was replaced in 1923 by a new peace treaty in Lausanne. Atatürk secularized and modernized the Turkish state. He introduced a number of reforms. He also moved the seat of the president, government and parliament from Istanbul to Ankara, which was until then a small town inside Anatolia. Nevertheless, Turkey continued to face economic and political problems, especially in the second half of the 20th century. Eleven to fourteen million Kurds live in Turkey, and the Turkish government's relationship with this national minority has not yet been fully resolved. Another problem of today's Turkey is the inability to come to terms with its own past (for example, the Turkish government denies the Armenian genocide committed by the Ottoman Empire during World War I, and the very "recognition" of the Armenian genocide is a crime in Turkey), religious intolerance Christians living in Turkey - Greeks, Assyrians, Armenians…) and nationalism (again directed against non-Turkish nationalities

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