Ukraine

Article

May 17, 2022

Ukraine (Україна) is a country located in Eastern Europe. In terms of area, Ukraine is the second largest country in Europe after the European part of the Russian Federation, with which it borders in the east and northeast. The Luhansk People's Republic and the Donetsk People's Republic were established in the eastern part of its territory, with a few exceptions that are not internationally recognized. It borders Romania, Moldova and the internationally unrecognized Transnistria in the southwest, Hungary, Slovakia and Poland in the west, Belarus in the north and the Russian Federation in the east. The southern borders of the state form the Black and Azov Seas, and between these seas is the Crimean Peninsula, which is de jure part of Ukraine, but de facto has been controlled by the Russian Federation since 2014. Ukraine has an area of ​​603,628 km2. With a population of about 41.7 million people, it is the eighth most populous country in Europe. The capital and largest city of Kyiv lies on the Dnieper, the longest and most important Ukrainian river. The territory of today's Ukraine has been inhabited since about 32,000 BC. It gradually bore various names from the Scythians, through the Greek Black Sea region to the Tripoli culture, which flourished between 5,500 and 2,750 BC in the Carpathian-Dnieper region. in the territory of today's Ukraine, Moldova and Romania with a total estimated area of ​​over 350 thousand km². During the Middle Ages, the area was a key center of Eastern Slavic culture, with the powerful state of Kievan Rus shaping the foundations of Ukrainian identity. The Mongol invasion in the 13th century contributed to its disintegration, and then the territory was invaded, controlled and divided by various powers, including the Polish-Lithuanian Union, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire. In the 17th to 18th centuries, although the semi-independent state unit Cossack Hetmanate existed in the area, it also eventually dissolved on the border between Poland and Russia. At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian Revolution created the Ukrainian National Movement for Self-Determination, and on June 23, 1917, the internationally recognized Ukrainian People's Republic was proclaimed. After four years of fighting, Ukraine lost its independence and most of it, as the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR), became part of the Soviet Union in 1922. As a result of World War II, Polish territories in the west and the formerly Czechoslovak Subcarpathian Rus were annexed to the USSR. Ukraine gained independence in 1991 after the collapse of the USSR and declared itself a neutral state; established a limited military partnership with Russia and other CIS countries, and in 1994 also established a partnership with NATO. In 2013, after Viktor Yanukovych's government decided to suspend Ukraine's association agreement and seek closer economic ties with Russia, a wave of protests and demonstrations known as Euromaidan began several months, which later, in 2014, escalated into a revolution that led to to overthrow Yanukovych and form a new government. These events formed the background for the annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014 and the ensuing war in eastern Ukraine. On 1 January 2016, Ukraine requested the opportunity to be part of a deep and comprehensive free trade area with the European Union. Ukraine has been at war since February 24, 2022, when it was invaded by Russia, and there is a general mobilization. Ukraine is the developing country in 74th place in the human development index. Together with Moldova, it is the poorest country in Europe and suffers from very high levels of poverty and serious corruption. However, due to the large area of ​​fertile agricultural land, it is one of the largest exporters of grain in the world. It also maintains the third largest army in Europe, after Russia and France. Ukraine is a unitary, semi-presidential republic with separate legislative, executive and judicial powers. The country is part of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the OSCE