First Coalition War
January 24, 2022
The First Coalition War was the first attempt by European monarchies to defeat revolutionary France. It lasted between 1792 and 1797. On April 20, 1792, France declared the so-called preventive war of the Habsburg Monarchy, and Prussia joined the Habsburgs a few weeks later. The war was initially unsuccessful for the French, mainly due to a lack of training and poor organization of the army. However, unlike the perfectly trained and armed standing armies of the enemy, they fought with enthusiasm, which later proved to be one of the decisive factors. Due to the ever-deteriorating military situation in the east of the country, King Louis XVI was ousted from the government on the night of August 9-10, 1792. In the subsequent elections to the National Convention, they won. the Gironde, led by Danton, who took over the country. After the overthrow of the king, the Prussian troops hastened the preparations for the final defeat of France, but after initial successes, the army of Karel Vilém Ferdinand, Prince of Brunswick, was defeated on September 20, 1792 at the Battle of Valma. The very next day, the king was definitively deposed and the republic proclaimed. Nine days later, the Prussian-Habsburg troops began retreating from France. At Toulon, he earned promotion to the rank of Brigadier General Napoleon Bonaparte, who led the siege. The war ended with Napoleon's crushing campaign in northern Italy against Austria, where France won the battles of Lodi, Rivoli, Milan and Castiglione. In light of the French's free trip to Vienna, on April 7, 1797, Emperor Francis I requested a separate peace with France. On October 17, 1797, peace was made between the two countries in Campo Formio, which meant great territorial losses for Austria.