Covidid vaccine-19

Article

October 25, 2021

Covid-19 vaccines are vaccines designed to provide immunity against covid-19. Prior to the covidu-19 pandemic, SARS and MERS coronavirus vaccine development work provided knowledge of the structure and function of coronaviruses, accelerating the development of various covid-19 vaccine technology platforms in early 2020. In phase III clinical trials, several vaccines have been shown to be effective up to 95% in preventing symptomatic covid-19 infection. As of July 2021, the national regulatory authorities of at least one state had approved twenty vaccines for public use. These are the following vaccines: two RNA vaccines (Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna), nine conventional inactivated vaccines (BBIBP-CorV from the Chinese company Sinopharm, CoronaVac from the Chinese company Sinovac, Covaxin from the Indian company Bharat Biotech, Chinese WIBP-CorV, Russian CoviVac, Kazakh QazCovid-in, Chinese Covidful, Iranian COVIran Barakat and Chinese KCONVAC), five viral vector vaccines (Sputnik V and Sputnik Lajt vaccines from the Russian Gamalej Institute, Oxford – AstraZeneca, Ad5-nCoV from the Chinese company CanSino Biologics and Johnson & Johnson) and four peptide vaccines (Russian EpiVacCorona, Chinese RBD-Dimer (ZF2001), Cuban Abdala, Cuban Soberana 02 and Taiwanese MVC-COV1901). According to the World Health Organization, as of July 2021, 330 vaccines were in development worldwide, of which 102 were in clinical trials 102 vaccines against covid-19, of which 30 in the first phase, 30 in phases I to II, 25 in III. Phase IV and 8 in Phase IV. According to the head of the European branch of the World Health Organization, Hans Klug, all covid-19 vaccines used in Europe at the end of May are able to protect against all coronavirus mutations. , such as the elderly, and those at high risk of exposure and transmission, such as healthcare professionals. A total of 3 billion doses were ordered for Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines for 2021 (as of March 2021), Pfizer – BioNTech 1.2 billion doses, Moderny 800 million, Sputnik V 770 million and Johnson & Johnson 370 million. By December 2020, more than 10 billion doses of vaccines had been pre-ordered, with about half of the benefits purchased by high-income countries, which cover only 14% of the world's population. By 23 October 2021, 6,839,897 320 doses of covid-19 vaccine. As of August 31, 2021, 5.8 billion doses of vaccine were produced, of which 2.8 billion in China, 1.1 billion in the European Union, 636 million in the United States, and 682 million in India. The largest producers included Sinovac (1.56 billion batches), Pfizer (1.22 billion), Sinopharm (1.19 billion) and AstraZeneca (1.04 billion).

Planning and investment

The development of covid-19 vaccines, which has been underway since the beginning of 2020, is marked especially in the Western world by the cooperation of some companies in the multinational pharmaceutical industry and the development of biotechnology companies in many countries. According to the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovation (CEPI), the geographical distribution of covid-19 vaccine development includes organizations in North America that have approximately 40% of the world's covid-19 vaccine research, while 30% of research is in Asia and Australia. % in Europe, including Russia, and a few percent in South America and Africa. Already, the first phase of human vaccine testing requires significant capital costs for pharmaceutical companies, estimated at $ 14 to $ 25 million for a typical Phase I clinical trial, but possibly as much as $ 70 million. dollars. For comparison

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