Space tourism (also space tourism) is a designation for space flights whose participants pay for the trip from private means, without the support of a state organization. The term is used only in the media, the official designation of these cosmonauts is a participant in a space flight (participant of a space flight, or spaceflight participant).
Space tourism is provided by the Russian space agency Roskosmos, the promotion and search for people is the American company Space Adventures; Americans are skeptical of this concept and do not allow willing mobile travelers to take such a vacation. This also applies to a stay on the ISS, where space tourists are officially restricted in the American part of the station, officially for security reasons. Applicants must go through a standard medical commission and complete six months of training at the Astronaut Training Center in Star City.
The very first participant in the space flight was supposed to be the American teacher Christa McAuliffe in January 1986, who, after four months of preparation, took part in the unfortunate flight of the Challenger STS-51-L space shuttle, which exploded after 73 seconds of flight. It was in connection with her participation, which attracted a lot of attention, and at about that time (the turn of 1985/86), the term spaceflight participant was introduced and taken into account. Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor and a doctoral student of nanotechnology, I So-jon - Malaysian cosmonauts, resp. Korean Space Agency.
Since 2000, Space Adventures has been organizing space tourist flights on Russian Soyuz ships. The first "tourist" in space was the American Dennis Tito in 2001 and a year later the South African Mark Shuttleworth. They both paid $ 20 million for the trip. So every minute of Tito's holiday cost almost CZK 45,000. These spent 7 days in space and Shuttleworth 9 days.
The last Guy Laliberté paid $ 35 million for a trip into space, became the first Canadian and for a long time the last space tourist. Roskosmos wants to offer flights in the future if space becomes available on flights to the ISS. The ISS orbital complex has been manned by a permanent six-member crew since 2009 and there is no place for paying visitors in Soyuz ships.
Due to the annual flight (instead of the usual six-month flight) of Mikhail Kornienko and Scott Kelly in March 2015 - March 2016, a seat became vacant in the Soyuz TMA-18M ship in October 2015, which was to be filled by English singer Sarah Brightman. However, on April 22, 2015, the soprano interrupted several weeks of training in Hvězdný městec and announced that she was postponing the journey indefinitely for family reasons. She was to pay $ 52 million for the trip. The flight of Google founder Sergei Brin in 2017 was also considered if another seat became available in a Soyuz. Already in 2008, Brin made a $ 5 million deposit to Space Adventures, filling the nearest vacancy on the Soyuz. However, no other space tourist has flown into space since 2009.
Spacelon with Falcon Elona Muska rockets Jeff Bezos joined Blue Origin with the "truly reusable" New Sphepard and New Glenn rockets in connection with space tourism. Blue Origin wants to take the first tourists into space in 2019, but this is only a sub-orbital flight. The rivalry and healthy rivalry of the two billionaires can accelerate the whole industry.
Experts warn of environmental impacts if this tourism expands.
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