Vratislav II.

Article

January 24, 2022

Wroclaw II (around 1033 - January 14, 1092) was a Czech prince from January 28, 1061 to April 1085 and then the first Czech king of the Přemyslid dynasty. He was also the titular king of Poland in 1085-1092. As prince he was Wroclaw II, as king Wroclaw I. (Wratislaus Primus Rex).

Family

Wroclaw was the second-born son of Prince Břetislav I. and Jitka of Svinibrod, brother of Spytihněv II., Konrád I. Brněnský, Ota Olomoucký and Bishop Jaromír. According to his father's will, he inherited the Olomouc fate, which he ruled in the years 1055-1056 and then 1058-1061. We do not know Wrocław's first wife by name, only her German origin is speculated. But her story is well known. When Wrocław got into a dispute with his brother Spytihněv II, he decided to leave Olomouc, where he was based. He sought refuge with the Hungarian King Andrew I. He preferred to leave his first wife, a noblewoman who was already in the advanced stages of pregnancy, in Olomouc. However, Spytihně imprisoned this woman, and she eventually died in a premature birth when, after her release, she went to Hungary to see her husband. Thus, for the second time, Wrocław married Ondřej's daughter Adléta, a Hungarian princess from the Arpád family, probably in 1057. Wrocław thus gained a strong ally and Spytihněv II. in 1058 he returned the fate of Olomouc. When Wrocław became a prince after the death of his older brother Spytihněv in 1061, Adléta did not rejoice as a princess for a long time and died at the beginning of next year. About a year after Adléta's death, Wrocław married Svatava Polska for the third time. He thus confirmed his friendship with the Polish prince Boleslav II. Bold (but later fought for the Czech-Polish border).

Foreign policy

Wroclaw II he was above all an important ally of Emperor Henry IV. during the conflicts with the Poles, Meissen and Henry's anti-king Rudolf Swabian, he also invaded Austria. A year after the Polish prince Boleslav II. occupied Kiev and was encouraged by this success, attacked the Czechs in 1070 (trying to change the borders). However, Wroclaw was more successful. Henry IV He urged the two princes to settle the dispute and threatened to attack the one who would break the peace next time. Boleslav broke his oath. On May 19, 1073, Henry declared an expedition against Poland, which did not take place due to internal problems. The Polish state began to strengthen during this period and Henry needed Wroclaw to defend against its rulers. Also in 1073, the new Pope Gregory VII. confirmed in his letter the use of the miter to the Czech prince for a fee of 100 hryvnias of silver, as it was introduced under Wroclaw's predecessor (and older brother) Spytihněv. the right to elect and appoint church dignitaries. Poland and Hungary stood by the pope, while Wroclaw remained loyal to Henry. Through his alliance with Jindřich, Wrocław brought territorial gains to his estate - he received, albeit only temporarily, the titles of Margrave of the Saxon Eastern Mark (Lusatia) and Meissen from Henry. In 1081, however, the agreement changed. Henry donated Meissen and Lusatia to his original families, and in return he was awarded the title of Margrave of the Bavarian Eastern Mark - Austria. However, it was primarily a political move, as the Babenbergs ruled in Austria.

Royal crown

In April 1085, a court congress was held in Mainz, which made a significant contribution to Czech history. Wroclaw II received from Emperor Henry IV. for his faithful service the royal crown (but only non-hereditary - for his person), he was relieved of obligatory fees and obliged by the participation of Czech rulers and his retinue on the coronation journeys of German monarchs to Rome. Gradually, Czech and German ties were loosened

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