Wales [English wejlz, honored vels or vejls], Welsh Cymru (lat. Cambria), is a country of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland with limited autonomy, extending west of England on a large peninsula in the west of the island of Great Britain. Wales is originally inhabited by the Celtic nation of the Welsh.
The formal name of the Principality of Wales, English Principality of Wales, Welsh Tywysogaeth Cymru, is rarely used and the term Welsh Principality is not particularly popular among the people of Pembrokeshire, Cardiganshire and Gwynedd.
The Czech name Wales (pronounced vels or vejls) is taken from English in its unchanged form. The English name comes from the Germanic word Walha, meaning "foreigner" or "foreigner". Wallachia (also in Romania), Wallonia or Gaul (Celt/Keltoi/Galatai, romanized foreigner) have a similar etymology. The Welsh call themselves Cymry, which probably means "countryman" in Old Welsh. The name was for a long time used together with Brythoniaid (Britons) in Welsh literature. This is where the Welsh name of the country Cymru and its Latinized form Cambria, which is the name of the oldest Cambrian formation, comes from. The name Cumbria (territory and county on the northwestern edge of England) is of the same origin.
The area of Wales has been inhabited for at least 29 thousand years, although continuous settlement only begins after the last ice age. There are many monuments in Wales from the Neolithic period (mainly tombs), but also from the Bronze and Iron Ages. The first written historical records come from the Romans, who began conquering Wales in 48 AD. At that time, the area of present-day Wales was divided into many clan territories. The Romans built a chain of forts across South Wales and mined gold at Dolaucothi. They also founded the legionary fortress of Caerleon (Latin: Isca Silurum), which has the best-preserved amphitheater in Britain. During the 4th century, the Romans brought Christianity to Wales.
Around 410 the Romans left Britain and various Germanic tribes took over much of the lowlands in Wales. On the other hand, many independent Welsh states were created, such as Gwynedd, Powys, Dyfed and Seisyllg, Morgannwg and Gwent. These states survived mainly due to suitable geographical conditions (mountains, rivers) and thus formed the basis of what we know as Wales today. In the 7th century, states on the border with England built fortified ramparts (Wat's Dyke, Off's Dyke). Today, a hiking trail of the same name leads across the entire peninsula from the south to the north coast along the remains of Offa's rampart.
Viking raiders were also involved in the border clashes between the people of Wales and England. The Welsh made an agreement with the Vikings to fight together against Anglo-Saxon Mercia, temporarily preventing expansion into Wales.
The entire Middle Ages is accompanied by a struggle with England, i.e. with the Anglo-Saxons and then the Normans. Only the English king Edward I managed to occupy Wales at the end of the 13th century. Edward "chained" Wales with a circle of royal castles and introduced the title of Prince of Wales (Prince of Wales), which is still traditionally held by the successor to the English (today British) throne ( crown prince).
Resistance to English rule arose several times, the largest rebellion being led in the 15th century by Owain Glyndŵr, who retained control of Wales for several years. In 1536, Wales was fully annexed to England, the Welsh legislature being linked to the Parliament at Westminster.
In the 18th century, the industrial revolution began, which deeply affected Wales due to its rich coal deposits and the proximity of busy English ports (Bristol, Liverpool). South East Wales in particular was heavily industrialized during the 19th century and the population grew dramatically through migration. These