Loan and Lease Act

Article

December 3, 2021

The Lend and Lease Act, passed by the U.S. Congress on March 11, 1941, replaced the existing U.S. Neutrality and Cash and Carry Actes of 1939. It made it possible to lend or lease war material and food to countries whose defense the U.S. President defended. described as vital to the US defense. The law was enforced by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who spoke for the first time in public as early as December 1940 on American aid to Europe, specifically the United Kingdom and France, through the supply of armaments, equipment and defense materials.

Warfare

The deliveries lasted from March 1941 to September 20, 1945. The total volume of deliveries amounted to $ 50.1 billion, of which the United Kingdom received 31.4 billion, the USSR 11.3 billion, France 3.2 billion, Chang'an China 1.6 billion and other allies (Brazil, Norway, the Netherlands…) received a total of $ 2.6 billion (Czechoslovakia 0.6 billion). The principle was that the American allies received war material, which they had to use until its destruction in combat, or return after the war. In practice, of course, most of the material was not returned after the war. The Allies began to pay for the delivered material already during the war, through the so-called "Reverse Lend and Lease". These payments took various forms, mostly bargains or free leases of military bases, which they provided to the United States in its territories, either during the war or for various lengths of time after the war (usually 99 years). These were bases in the Caribbean, Canada, New Caledonia, Australia, New Zealand, etc. Most of these bases still form the support of the United States. Another form of payment during the war was the provision of technologies, especially radar, sonar, self-sealing fuel tanks, plastic explosives, but also British cooperation on the Manhattan project. The USSR again sent various precious metals (platinum) and industrial diamonds to the United States. [Source?] The total volume of the war "Reverse Lend-Lease" was $ 7.8 billion, of which 6.8 billion from the United Kingdom. For the material provided to the allies, the US government paid its producers with money obtained from government bonds.

Helping the Soviet Union

The support of the fighting Soviet Union took the form not only of military supplies, but also of strategic civilian supplies. The USSR was a country whose industrial and food base was severely damaged by the war in the first months of the fighting. Although a number of factories were evacuated and many more rebuilt, they all focused primarily on the production of weapons and ammunition, so civilian supplies were vital to the USSR. Although most Red Army tank units were equipped with Soviet-made tanks, their logistical support was provided by hundreds of thousands of American trucks. In 1945, a third of the Red Army's logistics fleet came from the United States. The individual sources differ in the exact numbers of total deliveries to the USSR, but approximately the total amount of weapons and material was as follows: more than 400,000 jeeps and trucks; about 13,000 armored vehicles (approx. 7,000 tanks, 1,386 M3 Lee and 4102 M4 Sherman), approx. 11,400 aircraft (4,719 Bell P-39 Airacobra), 35,000 motorcycles, 131,633 automatic weapons, 12,997 pistols, 350 000 tons of explosives, 90 cargo ships, 15,417,000 pairs of military boots, 622,100 tons of rails (56.5% of USSR production), 2,000 locomotives - before the war the Soviet Union had 25,000 locomotives (only 446 locomotives were produced during the war, of which between 1942 and 1945 only 92). In addition, 11,000 rail cars were delivered, but 428,000 cars were lost or damaged in the occupied USSR alone. The total fleet of the USSR before the war reached 600 thousand cars

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