Politics and World Events
Hundred Years War/Ferdinandin Wars
22./23. June: England is defeated by a Castilian-French fleet in the naval battle of La Rochelle. The English admiral John Hastings, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, is taken prisoner. The defeat results in Castile and France gaining control of the Atlantic and the English Channel, allowing the French counter-offensive to successfully recapture their lost territories from England. Moreover, trade between England and Flanders is destroyed, while trade between Flanders and Castile takes its place.
July 10: Shortly after the end of the First Ferdinandine War, Ferdinand I of Portugal signed a treaty with John of Gaunt promising mutual support against the Kingdom of Castile.
30 November: Bertrand du Guesclin captures Thouars for France after a long siege in the Hundred Years' War.
December: The Second Ferdinandine War begins between Ferdinand I of Portugal and the kings of the House of Trastámara for the throne of Castile. King Henry II attacks Portugal and surprisingly advances to Lisbon.
Holy Roman Empire
2 June: Frankfurt am Main, under the leadership of lay judge Johann von Holzhausen, buys its freedom from Emperor Charles IV from being overseen by an imperial mayor. At the same time, the city acquires the Reichsforst bordering on the city area.
June 27: Albrecht II of Hohenlohe dies. In the election of his successor as Bishop of Würzburg, there is a double election. Although Withego II Hildbrandi has the majority of the cathedral chapter behind him, he can defend himself against his competitor Albrecht III. von Hessberg but not enforce. Withego then went personally to Avignon to see Pope Gregory XI. In the presence of Naumburg Bishop Gerhard von Schwarzburg, who is also under pressure in his diocese, the exchange of the two dioceses is agreed. Gerhard is now in turn faced with the task of opposing the antibishop Albrecht III. enforce, which has strong support in the citizenry and the clergy as well as in neighboring imperial princes, and marches with an army towards Würzburg.
August 24: Duke Casimir III. died fighting Margrave Otto V of Brandenburg during the storming of Königsberg in der Neumark. After his death, his younger brothers Swantibor III. and Bogislaw VII continued the joint rule in Pomerania-Stettin. In November they make peace with Margrave Otto, which confirms the result of the peace treaty concluded the previous year.
Scottish farmers and shepherds drive off the English army under Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland during the Anglo-Scottish Border Wars at the bloodless Battle of Duns.
On his deathbed, the Albanian prince Andrea II Muzaka divided the principality of Muzakaj he had founded among his three sons Gjin I Muzaka, Theodor II Muzaka and Stoya.
A Chinese invasion under the Ming Emperor Hongwu in Mongolia fails. As a result of the military defeat, Hongwu has several defense lines built to the north. Among other things, the western part of the Great Wall with the Jiayu Pass at Jiayuguan in Gansu Province is being built.
After the death of Newaya Krestos of the Solomon dynasty, his eldest son Newaya Mariam succeeded him as Negus negest on the throne of the Ethiopian Empire.
The Archbishop of Cologne and Elector Friedrich III. von Saar Werden moves the Rhine customs from Neuss to Zons, and as a result Zons is expanded into the customs fortress that is still preserved today.
The Electors Kuno von Trier and Friedrich von K�