October 14th is the 287th day of the Gregorian calendar (the 288th in leap years), leaving 78 days until the end of the year.
Politics and world affairs
1066: In the Battle of Hastings, the Normans who had advanced to England under William the Conqueror defeat the Anglo-Saxon army of Harald Godwinson (Harald II), who fell in battle. England is now under Norman rule.
1279: The Archbishop of Cologne, Siegfried von Westerburg, concludes the Pingsheim Peace with the Count of Jülich, which regulates the spheres of influence of the two sovereigns.
1318: In the Battle of Faughart, an Irish-Scottish army under Edward Bruce is decisively defeated by an Anglo-Irish army. Thus the Scottish attempt to conquer Ireland had failed.
1322: In the Battle of Byland, a Scottish army beats the rearguard of an English army. The English King Edward II can barely escape capture.
1413: The Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, Heinrich von Plauen, is forced to resign at a general chapter of the order.
1451: Under the leadership of Ulrich von Eyczing, the Mailberg League against King Friedrich IV., The later Emperor Friedrich III. closed.
1468: King Ludwig XI. of France and Duke Charles the Bold of Burgundy agree in the Peace of Péronne on French property in the county of Flanders.
1529: During the first Turkish siege of Vienna, the Ottomans under Suleyman the Magnificent manage to blow a breach (Sulaiman breach) in the Kärntnertor of the Vienna city wall, but the defenders of the city are able to repel the assault. The following night the besiegers withdrew because of the early onset of winter.
1533: In the battle of Jemgum, the troops of the Duchy of Geldern and Balthasar von Esens defeat those of the county of East Friesland during the Geldrian feud.
1758: In the Battle of Hochkirch, Frederick the Great is defeated by the Austrian army under Field Marshals Leopold Joseph Daun and Ernst Gideon von Laudon. The battle marks a turning point in the Seven Years' War in favor of the Austrians and puts Prussia on the defensive.
1773: In Poland, under King Stanislaus II August, the world's first ministerial organization for education, the Komisja Edukacji Narodowej (Commission for National Education), is established, which Hugo Kołłątaj has a major influence.
1781: The Americans and French make a decisive breakthrough during the siege of Yorktown during the American War of Independence by conquering two important fortifications. The evacuation of the British troops by General Charles Cornwallis fails, which is why he offers to surrender the next day.
1793: During the French Revolution, the trial of the former Queen Marie Antoinette, known as the widow Capet, begins in Paris for high treason.
1805: The Third Coalition War begins with the Battle of Elchingen, which lasts until October 19.
1806: The double battle of Jena and Auerstedt during the Fourth Coalition War ends with the victory of the French troops under Napoleon against Prussia.
1809: After the occupation of Vienna and the victory in the Battle of Wagram, Napoleon dictates the Treaty of Schönbrunn to the Austrian Empire to end the Fifth Coalition War. Austria loses its access to the Adriatic Sea and has to cede Salzburg to the Kingdom of Bavaria.
1813: The Kingdom of Bavaria, allied with him, declares war on France.
1899: Great Britain and Portugal recognize each other's possessions in Africa in the secret Treaty of Windsor. Great Britain receives the right to free troop movements in the Portuguese colonies