Politics and World Events
England / Scotland / Ireland
English Civil War
January 23: King Charles I of England is handed over to the English Parliament by the Scottish Earl Archibald Campbell for a large bounty.
The Levellers write the pamphlet An Agreement of the People.
Irish Confederacy Wars
August: The English Revolutionary Army defeats the Confederacy of Ireland at the Battle of Dungans Hill.
September: British Parliamentary troops under Murrough O'Brien, 1st Earl of Inchiquin, capture and plunder the Rock of Cashel. The members of the local garrison and clergy are massacred and important religious works of art are destroyed.
November: The English Revolutionary Army defeats the Confederacy of Ireland at the Battle of Knocknanauss.
Thirty Years' War
March 14: Bavaria, Electorate of Cologne, France and Sweden sign the Armistice of Ulm.
A French force besieges Hohentübingen Castle and blows up its corner towers.
June 18: Louis Condé is defeated by the Spanish at Lleida in Catalonia.
July 18: The Swedes under Wrangel capture the Imperial Fortress of Eger.
August 22: Imperial troops under Peter Melander von Holzappel defeat the Swedes under Carl Gustaf Wrangel and Helmold Wilhelm Wrangel at the Battle of Triebl.
Other events in the realm
Compulsory schooling is introduced in Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel.
United Netherlands and Nieuw Nederland
After the death of his father Frederick Henry on March 14, William II of the House of Orange-Nassau became governor of the United Netherlands.
The new General Manager Petrus Stuyvesant arrives in the Nieuw Nederland colony on May 11, succeeding the controversial Willem Kieft. Two weeks later, the official inauguration takes place and Stuyvesant appoints a council and establishes a tribunal. As a concession to the will of the people, he elects 18 delegates in a general election, from which the governor and his council form a committee of 9 representatives. However, its powers are only of an advisory nature.
Willem Kieft, who is facing a court case in Amsterdam for his administration, boards the Princess Amalia in August, which sinks off the coast of Wales in September. Kieft dies in the process. All documents and papers for the process are lost with it. It is still unclear whether the allegations against him were justified.
Construction of St Agatha's Tower begins on December 5th as part of Malta's fortifications. Since the tower was built under Grand Master Jean de Lascaris-Castellar, it is counted among the so-called Lascaris Towers. Structurally, it corresponds more closely to the earlier Wignacourt Towers.
Science and Technology
After years of dealing with the subject De vita et moribus Epicuri, the French philosopher Pierre Gassendi publishes a biography of Epicurus that refutes the defamation of his person that has been customary since antiquity.
The French physicist Blaise Pascal proved with his experiment emptiness in the emptiness that the mercury in a manometer column is only pushed to a certain height by the external air pressure. Only with this experiment can the ancient hypothesis of the horror vacui, which goes back to Aristotle, be refuted and thus the existence of the vacuum be proven.
Rembrandt van Rijn paints Susanna and the two old people based on the theme of Susanna in the bath.
Baltasar Gracián's Oraculo manual y arte de prudencia is published in Huesca, Spain.
Johann Crüger publishes his hymn book Praxis pietatis melica, which contains lyrics by Paul Gerhardt for the first time, including Nun ruhen alle Bäume.
The English P