July 5, 2022


Politics and World Events


February 1: After a long siege of Fort Zeelandia, the Dutch East India Company under Governor Frederick Coyett loses the Dutch Formosa colony on the island of Taiwan, which had existed since 1624, to the forces of the Chinese army leader and pirate Koxinga, who fought in the fight with the only 1644 established Qing Dynasty in China. However, shortly after the kingdom of Tungning was established, Koxinga died of malaria on June 23. The Dutch, given safe conduct, go to Batavia, where Governor Coyett is court-martialled. He escapes the death penalty but is exiled to the Banda Islands for twelve years. June 23: After the death of Koxinga, his son Zheng Jing takes over the kingdom of Tungning in a dispute with his uncle Zheng Shixi. He strives for rapprochement and reconciliation with the Qing Dynasty and sends envoys to Beijing to achieve the status of an autonomous state for Tungning. However, this plan fails due to the demands of the Qing government. In response to Tungning fleet raids on Chinese coastal cities, Beijing orders the blockade of Taiwan and support for anti-Zheng Jing forces on the island. Triggered by a famine in China and the persecution of the Ming followers, there are several waves of immigration from the mainland Chinese to Taiwan until 1664, which are vigorously encouraged by Zheng Jing.


February 6: In the Treaty of Montmartre with Duke Charles IV, the French King Louis XIV gains influence over the Duchy of Lorraine. May 31: King Charles II of England marries Catherine of Braganza. However, as a Catholic, she will not be crowned Queen of England. October 27: King Charles II of England sells the city of Dunkirk to France, ruled by Louis XIV, for five million livres. Famine in France leads to unsuccessful uprisings. Around the same time, the expansion of the Palace of Versailles begins. The disputes between Elector Friedrich Wilhelm I and the Prussian estates escalated again in the Königsberg uprising After the introduction of absolutism in Denmark-Norway through the Sovereignty Act in the previous year, King Friedrich III. the administration of Denmark in 44 districts.


The city of Milton in the US state of Massachusetts is founded. New Haven Colony merges with Colony of Connecticut.


March 18: The Carrosses à cinq sols, designed by the French philosopher and mathematician Blaise Pascal, go into operation in Paris as the world's first local public transport system.

Science and Technology

Robert Boyle publishes his Nova experimenta physico-mechanica which contains the law about gases that at a fixed temperature the product of pressure and volume is a constant. In his work Natural and Political Observations Made upon the Bills of Mortality, John Graunt analyzes the London death register and thus lays the foundation for modern statistics. The Nuremberg Academy of Fine Arts is founded, making it the oldest art academy in the German-speaking world. Joan Blaeu begins publishing his Atlas Maior, an eleven-volume world atlas with 594 maps, in Amsterdam.



Duke Anton Ulrich von Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, a member of the Fruit-bearing Society since 1659, publishes his work Des Trojanisches Paridis Verdict / From the Golden Apple of Eridis.

Theater and musical theater

February 7: The world premiere of Francesco Cavalli's opera Hercules in Love takes place in Paris. September 26: The premiere of the musical drama Antiopa giustificata by Johann Caspar Kerll takes place in Mün