November 30, 2021


Politics and world affairs


January 10: The arrest of the members of the Catholic-Conservative Bünzer Committee leads to an armed uprising in Freiamt in the Swiss canton of Aargau. January 13: The abolition of all monasteries in the Swiss canton of Aargau leads to the Aargau monastery dispute.

Other events in Europe

July 13th: The Dardanelles Treaty between the major European powers and the Ottoman Empire bans the passage of warships through the Dardanelles, with the exception of Turkish warships and - in the event of war - ships of the Sultan's allies. October 2nd: After Honoré V's childless death, his brother Florestan becomes Prince of Monaco from the House of Grimaldi. December 20: The quintuple treaty is signed in London, which aims to suppress the slave trade. While Great Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia subsequently ratify the treaty, this does not happen in France.

First opium war in China

January 7th: In the Battle of Chuenpi, British ships and ground troops attack the Chinese coastal defense in the Bocca Tigris in front of the city of Canton. British forces inflict heavy losses on Chinese defenders. As a result, the Chinese Commander-in-Chief Qishan agrees to negotiations with the British, which, however, fail due to the rejection of Emperor Daoguang. January 20th: Great Britain occupies the Chinese city of Hong Kong. Henry Pottinger becomes the first governor. This also conquered the cities of Xiamen, Ningbo and Zhoushan in August. February 23 to 26: In the Battle of the Humen, the British expedition fleet under Charles Elliot succeeds in taking control of the coastal fortifications on the shipping route to the southern Chinese city of Canton. March 18: In the First Battle of Canton, the British expedition fleet conquers the thirteen factories in Canton, which served as an export port for European merchants until the interruption of trade. At the time of the battle, 90% of the population had already left the city against the orders of the Qing military. After the battle, Elliot turns to Yang Fang and tells him to allow canton trade again, otherwise the British troops would not leave the city again. Contrary to the Emperor's orders, Yang Fang will resume trading on March 21st. May 21-26: In the Second Battle of Canton, British troops crush the organized resistance of Chinese troops near Canton after a failed attack by the Qing military. The military situation is forcing the Chinese commander to sign a ceasefire with the British. After this has been fulfilled, the British will vacate the immediate vicinity of the city in return for diplomatic concessions. 30./31. May: Sanyuanli incident 26./27. August: Battle of Amoy September 29th to October 1st: Conquest of Chusan October 10: Battle of Zhenhai

First Anglo-Afghan War

Spring: William George Keith Elphinstone takes over command of the British troops in Kabul from Willoughby Cotton. William Nott is in command of the entire Sindh area and southern Afghanistan. He has had his headquarters in Kandahar since January. August: The British government under Robert Peel reduces payments to the Afghan tribal leaders, thereby withdrawing their support for the British occupation. In the course of the year, the unrest increased, fed by tax increases by King Shah Shuja and the dissolute life of some British officers, especially Alexander Burnes. On October 9th, soldiers of the 35th Native Infantry under Colonel Monteath are attacked at the Khoord Kabul Pass. A brigade under Robert Henry Sale was then transferred to Jalalabad and marched off on October 12th. 2.

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