In 1871, with the victory of Prussia in the Franco-Prussian War and the establishment of an empire, a new great power emerged in Europe. In France, the Paris Commune emerged as a reaction to the war. In unified Italy, Rome is declared the capital.
At the same time, with the dissolution of the Han and Samurai estates, a decisive step in the Meiji restoration and with it Japan's way into the modern age is taken.
Politics and world affairs
January 3: The battle of Bapaume ends in a draw. The French Armée du Nord withdraws in the evening.
January 9: After the battle of Bapaume a few days earlier, the defenders of the Péronne fortress, which was besieged by the Germans and the last French base on the Somme, surrender.
January 10th to January 12th: Battle of Le Mans. The battle ends with a strategic victory for the Prussian army. The French Loire Army is no longer a threat after heavy losses.
15th to 17th January: Battle of the Lisaine near the beleaguered Belfort. Sub-zero temperatures, inadequate food, resistance from the enemy and cautious action exhaust the strong French army; the troops commanded by General Charles Denis Bourbaki withdraw. After that there is no longer any hope of relief for the beleaguered fortress of Belfort; she surrenders on February 16, 1871.19. January: In the battle of Buzenval, the French units besieged in Paris attempt a sortie in the direction of Versailles. This attempt fails because of the Prussian troops. The approaching French Northern Army did not fare any better in the battle of Saint-Quentin on the same day.
January 23: Jules Favre sends a request for a ceasefire to Otto von Bismarck. The next day the negotiations begin in Versailles.
January 26th: Versailles preliminary peace. The bombardment of Paris is stopped.
January 26: Charles Denis Bourbaki was deposed as commander of the Armée de l’Est and attempted suicide. His successor is Justin Clinchant, who two days later asks for his troops to be interned in Switzerland.
January 28th: After several days of negotiations, besieged Paris surrenders. The threat of food shortages in Paris after several months of siege forces the French government (Trochu cabinet) to give in. In Versailles, a ceasefire negotiated between Otto von Bismarck and Jules Favre is agreed, which expressly does not apply to the Doubs, Côte-d’Or and Jura departments. In fact, this is where the French defeat begins.
February 1: The Swiss General Hans Herzog signs the Treaty of Les Verrières. After the signing, over 87,000 French soldiers of the Armée de l'Est, who were trapped in the Pontarlier area by superior German forces, save themselves at the border town of Les Verrières, but also via the Col des Étroits near Sainte-Croix, the Col de Jougne and the Risoux in the Vallée de Joux, in neutral Switzerland. They have to hand in weapons, ammunition and material and are interned for six weeks.
February 8: National Assembly elections are held in France. The voters favor peace advocates and above all secure seats in parliament for the monarchists. The National Assembly will begin its work on February 12 in Bordeaux.
February 16: After 108 days of siege, the eastern French city of Belfort is handed over to the German troops.
February 17th: the National Assembly elects Adolphe Thiers as "Chief Executive". She instructs Thiers and Jules Favre to negotiate peace with Otto von Bismarck.
February 26: The preliminary peace at Versailles is concluded between Otto von Bismarck for the German Empire and Adolphe Thiers for France. The Franco-German War finally ended a few weeks later