November 30, 2021
Politics and world affairs
First World War
Political and diplomatic developments
January 24th: A German-Afghan friendship and trade treaty ensures that Afghanistan will recognize its sovereignty.
January 26th: A draft bill is passed in the House of Commons. It initially applies to all single men between the ages of 18 and 41.
February 4th: The Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph I donates the War Cross for civil merit in four classes.
February 22nd: With the House-Gray Memorandum, Edward Mandell House, US President Woodrow Wilson's representative to the Entente and British Foreign Secretary Edward Gray conclude a secret agreement on the entry of the United States into the First World War.
March 9: After Prime Minister Afonso Costa gave the order in February to confiscate all German merchant ships in Portuguese waters, the German Empire declares war on Portugal. On March 15, Austria-Hungary followed with the declaration of war.
March 12: At the third Chantilly conference in the French town of the same name, further strategic plans of the Allies are discussed.
March 16: A grand coalition government is formed in Portugal due to the country's entry into the First World War. António José de Almeida will succeed Afonso Costa as head of government, but he will remain finance minister.
May 16: In the secret Sykes-Picot Agreement, Great Britain and France delimit their colonial spheres of influence in the Middle East for the period after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in World War I. The agreement negotiated by François Georges-Picot and Mark Sykes contradicts the Hussein-McMahon correspondence, in which Sir Henry McMahon, British High Commissioner in Egypt, the leader of the Hejaz, Hussein ibn Ali, Sherif of Mecca, the Arab independence in the case of a successful Arab uprising, albeit in very vague formulations.
June 18: After a vote of no confidence over ongoing military failures, Italian Prime Minister Antonio Salandra resigns. He is succeeded by his 78-year-old party colleague Paolo Boselli after two others have refused office.
June 22: Greek Prime Minister Stephanos Skouloudis resigns. After him come in quick succession Alexandros Zaimis, Nikolaos Kalogeropoulos and, on October 10th, Spyridon Lambros. The government installed by Constantine I in Athens, however, only controls the south of the divided country. A republican counter-government under Eleftherios Venizelos is established in Thessaloniki.
July 6th: Liberal David Lloyd George succeeds Herbert Kitchener, who died a month earlier in the sinking of HMS Hampshire, as British Secretary of War.
August 28: Italy declares war on the German Reich.
August 29th: Erich von Falkenhayn is replaced as Chief of the Supreme Army Command by Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff. Two days later they presented the Hindenburg Plan, an extensive list of demands to expand arms production.
October 21: The Austrian Prime Minister Karl Graf von Stürgkh is murdered by the Social Democrat Friedrich Adler in the dining room of the Vienna Hotel Meissl & Schadn.
October 28: Ernest von Koerber is appointed by Emperor Franz Joseph I to succeed Stürgkh as Austrian Prime Minister. The Koerber II Ministry is sworn in on October 31.
The census of Jews in the German army takes place on November 1st. The decree of the Prussian Minister of War Adolf Wild von Hohenborn of October 11th reacts to the anti-Semitism widespread in the German officer corps and the propaganda intensified by anti-Semitic associations, parties and the media that Jews are "shirkers" who are doing arms service at the front