Politics and World Events
Treaties after the World War
April 16: Treaty of Rapallo between Germany and Russia. Both countries waive the reimbursement of war costs and damages.
June 20: East Upper Silesia is ceded by the German Reich to Poland.
4 October: In the Geneva Protocols, Austria once again accepts the ban on joining Germany. In return, Austria receives 650 million gold crowns from a loan from the League of Nations to help it cope with the hyperinflation after the First World War.
June: Hitler is sentenced to four weeks in prison for his seditious speeches.
June 24: The German Reich Foreign Minister Walther Rathenau is murdered by the National Socialists.
August 11: Reich President Friedrich Ebert makes the song of the Germans the national anthem of the German Reich. Foundation of youth loyal to the Kaiser
9 December: Engineer Gabriel Narutowicz is elected first President of the Republic of Poland by the National Assembly. A week later he was murdered by the fanatic Eligiusz Niewiadomski. Stanisław Wojciechowski, a member of the cooperative, was elected as his successor in the elections on December 20th.
January 12: Karachay-Cherkessia is separated from the Soviet Mountain Republic.
January 16: Kabardino-Balkaria is founded.
February 8: The secret service Cheka of the Russian CPSU is transferred to the newly founded state secret service GPU.
April 3: Josef Stalin becomes General Secretary of the CPSU.
December 30: Foundation of the Soviet Union
Great Britain and Ireland
7 January: The Irish Parliament ratifies the Anglo-Irish Treaty giving the new Irish Free State autonomy rights.
June 22 British Field Marshal Henry Hughes Wilson is assassinated by IRA operatives.
June 28: The Irish Civil War begins with the bombing and storming of the occupied Dublin Courthouse.
August 1: Declaration by Britain's Lord President of the Council Arthur Balfour that Britain would only seek reparations from Germany and war debts from its former allies to meet its own war debts to the United States.
October 19: At the Carlton Club meeting, Britain's Conservative Party votes to contest the upcoming general election as an independent force. The Liberal Prime Minister David Lloyd George then resigns; his successor will be the newly elected conservative party leader Andrew Bonar Law.
6 December: After the province of Ulster was ceded in 1921, the Irish Free State was formed.
Other events in Europe
January 1: In Austria, the city of Vienna becomes an independent federal state.
January 1: Robert Haab becomes the new Federal President of Switzerland.
February 7: António Maria da Silva becomes Prime Minister of Portugal for the second time.
March 3: In the Free State of Fiume, fascists take power with a coup d'état. The legal government flees to the neighboring Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
October 28: Mussolini's March on Rome, which also brings him to power on October 31.
Aug 26 - Aug 30 August: Battle of Dumlupınar in which the Greeks suffer a decisive defeat and are subsequently forced to withdraw from Anatolia.
September 9: "Asia Minor catastrophe": The Turks conquer the city of Smyrna (Turkish: Izmir) in Asia Minor. Izmir burns for several days and the city's Christian residents are massacred, killing tens of thousands and destroying large parts of the city. The surviving Greek and Armenian residents are evacuated by ships, as are the defeated